Monday, February 3, 2020

The interpretation of Islamic texts is entirely independent of Essay

The interpretation of Islamic texts is entirely independent of historical vicissitudes. Discuss - Essay Example Most of the interpretation of the Islamic texts is based on the historical changes and this is modified in order to suit a particular context whether present or past. It is in this perspective that I will be arguing against the perception that the interpretation of the Islamic texts is entirely independent of historical vicissitudes. The paper will be split into various categories in order to look analytically on the aspects that support my argument. The first section will be a history on Islam in the world. Thereafter I will discuss and argue against the aforementioned topic. This will be done in different contexts like looking at the gender in relation of the Islam; this will be looked at in relation of the treatment of women and men through the interpretation of the Islamic texts. Each concept will be looked at analytically with the support of relevant reading material and credited sources. The last section will be the conclusion of the paper and how each of the said point has bee n relevant during the research for this paper. Each argument will be argued first with me giving my own opinion about it then using the citation from relevant materials and concluding with my own opinion of the said topic. Each stage will have the relevant support references. Introduction to Islam The history of Islam has in most cases been associated with the sole existence of Islamic states and empires. Since the beginning Islam was existing; the spread of the religion was on a community—state basis. It was both a faith and a political order. Within years and centuries after the His death, Muhammad’s local Arabian polity did become a very huge empire going as far as North Africa to Southeast Asia. The advancement and development of Islam and institutions are always intertwined. Islam: The History In the 6th Century in the Arabia brought forward the rise of Islam. The Arabia was the source and congregation of many beliefs. Christianity and also the practice of Judaism was in the region although for the better part of the 6th Century C.E (Common Era) they were overwhelmed by the faction of the tribal deities that practices barbaric activities. Muhammad (pbuh), the Prophet of Islam was born in Mecca in 570 Common Era in what is referred to as Saudi Arabia. His family dealt in trade and by the time He was 25 he was employed by an old woman who was a widow with whom He later married. At 40, He began to experience visions and also auditory revelations, throughout His occasional meditation retreat in the caves. According to Islamic Social Services Association, the angel Gabriel revealed himself to Him and gave Him a book in which he was commanded to â€Å"Read†. In the beginning this revelation was being shared with His friends and family and with instances He congregated on a daily basis with the growing number of people and the meaning of Peace was shared. The message that Muhammad (pbuh) had for Peace was met with resistance thus it made Him run away to Medina. The event is called Hijrah (emigration). Eventually He returned to Mecca and died in 632 in Medina and He also did not leave any male heir. According to Endress (1987), The word Islam is an Arabic word meaning peace, greeting, allegiance loyalty and obedience to the Creator. According to Muslims, Allah chose Prophet

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Pathogenic Etiology of Atherosclerosis

Pathogenic Etiology of Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Heart Coronary Special Topics in Pathophysiology Introduction to the Components of the Cardiovascular System: To understand the basis of this paper, the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, it is vital to appreciate the basic physiology of the heart, circulatory system, and most importantly, the coronary arteries. This fundamental comprehension will lay the foundation to better understand the devastation caused to the coronary arteries by the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This may also provide insight into prevention and treatment strategies to counteract the destructive mechanism of this disease. The heart is a very small, vitally important organ composed of four muscular chambers: the right and left atria, and the right and left ventricles. The atria have relatively thin muscular walls, allowing them to be highly distensible [1]; whereas the ventricles are of greater muscular thickness, which is vital for pumping the blood to the pulmonary and systemic circuits. A normal healthy heart has two main functions: to pump blood to the pulmonary circuit where the blood becomes oxygenated and to pump the oxygen-rich blood to the systemic circuit. The heart is essentially a small, muscular pump that is responsible for propelling deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while correspondingly pumping nutrient rich, oxygenated blood to the body. Once the blood leaves the left ventricle, it enters the aorta and corresponding network of arteries that constitute the circulatory system. Blood vessels are divided into four categories: arteries (take oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body), arterioles (branch out from the arteries leading into the capillaries), capillaries (smallest of blood vessels where gas and nutrient exchange occurs), and veins (carry deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart). Arteries and veins have different functions; however, they both are composed of three distinct layers: tunica intima, tunica media, and the tunica adventita [2]. The tunica intima is the innermost layer of any given blood vessel; it includes the endothelial lining and a layer of connective tissue containing variable amounts of elastic fibers [3]. The tunica media is the middle layer which contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle composed of elastin and collagen fibers [3]. It is this smooth muscle that when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system either constricts, decreasing the diameter of the lumen (vasoconstriction), or it relaxes, increasing the diameter of the vessel lumen (vasodilation) [2]; the role of these vasoactivators will be discussed later in this paper. Lastly, the tunica adventitia is the outer most layer, which is composed of collagen and elastin fibers. Often, this outer layer is blended into adjacent tissues allowing the anchoring and stabilization of some vessels [2]. As the heart is an organ continuously doing work, the cardiac muscle cells are in need of a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. It is the coronary circulation that is responsible for the blood supply to the cardiac tissues, via an extensive network of coronary arteries. Both the left and right coronary arteries originate from the base of the ascending aorta within the aortic sinus [1,3]. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role as neurogenic stimuli have the ability to restrain the extent of coronary vasodilation. This neuromodulation governs the rate of release of vasoconstrictive norepinephrine (NE), which is increased by the adrenergic activation and angiotension II (AII) [1]. Other vasoconstrictors include ÃŽ ±1 and ÃŽ ±2 adrenergic activity, AII, and endothelin. Vasoconstrictive stimuli are also responsible for an increase in free cytosolic calcium in the vascular smooth muscle, resulting in the homeostasis of myocardial contraction [4]. Importantly, these vasoconstrictive adrenergic influences are opposed by vasodilatory influences such as ÃŽ ²-adrenergic vascular receptors and metabolic mechanisms such as nitric oxide (NO), adenosine (ATP) and the activation of vascular ATP dependent potassium channels (KATP) [1]. With this, there are three essential regulators of coronary tone: i) the metabolic vasodilatory system; ii) the neurogenic control system (more vasoconstrictive than vasodilatory); and iii) the vascular epithelium, which can be either vasodilatory by releasing NO or vasoconstrictive by releasing endothelin-1 [1, 4]. Thus, we must keep in mind that endothelin-1 is one of the more powerful vasoconstrictors, especially when endothelial damage is extensive [1, 4]. These vasoactive substances are activated by their respective and very different, signaling pathways; thus contributing to the complexities of atherosclerosis, making it a true multifactorial disease. As with other vessels within the body, when there is an increased demand for oxygen, vasodilation of the coronary arteries occurs. This vasodilation is usually mediated by the release of NO from healthy endothelium; in contrast, when the endothelium is damaged, it releases vasoconstrictive endothelin [1]. It is because of their vital importance that the coronary arteries have gained popular attention when they are partially or completely occluded by atherosclerotic plaques. These atherosclerotic plaques cause inadequate oxygen supply to the cardiac tissue resulting in tissue death (myocardial infarction), and various other forms of heart diseases [1]. Therefore without an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardial muscle, the heart will cease to function properly. This basic foundation will give us a better idea on how a healthy cardiovascular system functions. Therefore allowing us to understand the drastic effects a disease such as atherosclerosis can have on this system. The main focus of this paper will be on atherosclerosis; however other forms of heart disease will be discussed to solidify the idea of how destructive atherosclerosis can be. Thus, the remainder of this paper will focus on the cellular mechanisms behind atherosclerosis, along with old and new thoughts in regards to the etiology and treatment options for this type of heart disease. Their Underlying Relation of Atherosclerosis to Other Coronary Heart Diseases: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as the dominant chronic disease in many parts of the world, and early in the 21st century it is predicted to become the main cause of disability and death worldwide [5]. CVD represents a very broad category of conditions that affect the heart and circulatory system. Common risk factors include: blood pressure (hypertension), total cholesterol (LDL and HDL), diabetes, obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and genetic predisposition [6]. The most prominent and worrisome of these diseases are those that contribute to coronary heart disease. The coronary heart diseases of interest include: ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and most importantly, atherosclerosis. As a result of these coronary heart diseases, cardiac output is often depressed and often increases the oxygen demand needed by the cardiac tissues. Therefore the effects of coronary heart disease cannot be taken lightly, as the effects can be highly variable, ranging from diffuse damage, to localized narrowing or stenosis of the coronary arteries [7]. Importantly, these coronary diseases have direct vasodilatory effects of the coronary circulation, acting by the formation of adenosine and NO, and the opening of the KATP channels; also the vascular endothelium is damaged, causing the vasodilatory stimuli to be overcome by the vasoconstrictors such as endothelin and AII [1]. By discussing these other forms of coronary heart disease, the reader will better understand the relationship between these diseases and atherosclerosis; allowing a better understanding of the importance for prevention and treatment strategies of coronary heart disease. Traditionally, it has been thought that the major cause of myocardial ischemia is the result of fixed vessel narrowing and abnormal vascular tone, caused by atherosclerosis-induced endothelial cell dysfunction [6]. This narrowing of the coronary arteries reduces the blood and oxygen flow to the myocardial tissues. It is the cessation of the myocardial blood flow due to atherosclerotic occlusions that results in the immediate physiological and metabolic changes. Unfortunately, the heart cannot increase oxygen extraction on demand, therefore any additional oxygen requirements are met by increasing the blood flow and autoregulation of the coronary vasculature [6]. This oxygen imbalance may also be an underlying cause for not only myocardial ischemia, but contractile cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, infarction, and sometimes death [5]. However, important to note is the heart’s unique ability to adapt to these sudden changes in coronary blood flow by correspondingly decreasing the rate of cardiac contraction [1,5]. Thus, the decreased work during ischemia proportionately decreases the oxygen demand and helps conserve the underperfused myocardium [1]; this protective mechanism prevents further damage and cell death due to decreased oxygen levels. Besides physiological factors, there are also metabolic changes that occur immediately after the initial onset of ischemia. The myocardial energy metabolism shifts from aerobic (mitochondrial) metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis within a few seconds [5]; simultaneously, the energy depletion causes the myocardial contraction to diminish, eventually ceasing altogether. Consequently, due to the inhibited mitochondrial metabolism, there is an increase in adenosine concentrations; which causes the adenosine to bind to the smooth muscle receptors, decreasing calcium entry into the cells, thus causing relaxation due to vasodilation [7,8]. Overall, the inability to meet the myocardial oxygen demand often results in severe, vice-like chest pain, or more commonly known as angina pectoris. Angina pectoris often is an associated symptom of myocardial ischemia and is the common medical term used to describe chest pain or discomfort due to coronary heart disease without myocardial necrosis. Interestingly, angina can also occur in people with valvular disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension). Currently there are three major variations of angina pectoris. The first is known as stable angina, or more commonly, chronic stable angina. This form of angina is characterized by a fixed, obstructive atheromous plaque in one or more coronary arteries [1,7,9]. Patients who suffer from chronic stable angina usually have episodes of discomfort that are usually predictable. The discomfort is experienced shortly after over exertion and/or mental or emotional stress; these symptoms are usually relieved by rest, nitroglycerin, or a combination of both. Again, the major contributing factor in stable angina is due to the coronary vasoconstrict ion caused by atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction [7]. A second form of angina is known as unstable angina. Unstable angina is characterized by unexpected chest pain which usually occurs at rest without any type of physical exertion. This chest pain is due to coronary artery stenosis caused by atherosclerotic plaque or the narrowing of the vessels obstructed by blood clots. Also other key factors in unstable angina include inflammation and infection [7,9]. The last form of angina is the variant angina, or more commonly known as Prinzmetal’s Angina [7]. This form of angina is manifested by episodes of focal coronary artery spasm in the absence of atherosclerotic lesions [7,9]. The coronary vasospasm alone reduces coronary oxygen supply and is thought to be caused in response to abnormal endothelial dependent vasodilators (Acetylcholine – ACh, and serotonin) [1,7]. These coronary spasms are often manifested by the coronary atheroma which damages the vascular endothelium, causing a decreased production of vasodilators (NO and prostaglandin – PGI2) and an increase in vasoconstrictive factors such as endothelin and AII [1]. Often when someone is diagnosed with either form of angina, they are usually monitored closely, as they are at an increased risk of a heart attack (myocardial infarction), cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death. A myocardial infarction (heart attack) is the resultant complication when the blood supply to part of the heart is interrupted. This ischemic oxygen shortage causes damage and sometimes death to the heart tissues. Important associated risk factors include: atherosclerosis, previous heart attack or stroke, smoking, high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels, diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure [10]. Often referred to as an acute myocardial infarction, it is part of the acute coronary syndromes which includes ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina [1,7,10]. As with angina, the pain experienced may result from the release of mediators such as adenosine and lactate from the ischemic myocardial cells onto the local nerve endings [7]. This ischemic persistence triggers a process called the ischemic cascade [5], which usually results in tissue death due to necrosis. Certain factors such as psychological stressors and physical exertion have been identified as major triggering factors involved with acute myocardial infarctions. Often these acute myocardial infarctions are brought on by the rupturing of atherosclerotic plaques, which then promote thrombus (blood clot) formation causing further occlusion of the arteries. This atherosclerotic blockage thus initiates myocardial necrosis, which in turn activates systemic responses to inflammation causing the release of cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFÃŽ ±) [7,10]. Damaged caused by myocardial necrosis includes: i) loss of critical amount of ATP, ii) membrane damag e induced metabolically or mechanically, iii) formation of free radicals, iv) calcium overload, and v) sodium pump inhibition [1]. Apart from damaging the myocardial tissue, an acute myocardial infarction can cause varying pathophysiological changes in other organ systems. Some of these changes include: decreased pulmonary function – gas exchange, ventilation, and distribution of perfusion, decreased vital capacity; reduction in hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen, causes hyperglycemia and impaired glucose function, increases the plasma and urinary catecholamine levels (thus enhancing platelet aggregation), and also has been found to increase blood viscosity [5]. From the above evidence, we can see that coronary heart disease should not be looked at light heartedly. It is due to their similarity that the different coronary heart diseases can be diagnosed using a given set of molecular markers and other diagnostic tools. Serum cardiac markers have become widely used when it comes to diagnosing the extent and type of coronary heart disease a patient is symptomatic of. Also, these tests have allowed physicians to diagnose an additional one third of patients that do not exhibit all criteria of a given disease [5], thus preventing more premature deaths. The most common of these cardiac markers are myocardial bound creatine kinase (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin l and t (cTnl and cTnT). These markers are often found within a blood sample as levels start to rise between 3-8 hours and 3-4 hours respectively [7]. More recently, new ‘risk factor’ biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO) [11, 12], and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [12] are being studied more in depth as alternative cardiac markers. Although cardiac biomarkers are heavily used, the role of noninvasive technologies also plays a major role in diagnosing coronary heart disease. These noninvasive metho ds include electrocardiography, exercise stress testing, echocardiography, cardiovascular MRI, and CT imaging of the heart [5]. Some invasive, intravascular techniques include ultrasound, thermography, near infrared spectroscopy, cardiac catheterization, and cardiac angiography [12]. As coronary heart disease is the leading cause of hospitalization and death among today’s population, primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be considered with the utmost importance. Primary prevention generally means the effort set forth to modify risk factors and prevent their development delaying or preventing new onset coronary heart disease [13]. As for secondary prevention, this often refers to the therapy involved to reduce recurrent coronary heart disease events; thus secondary preventions are essentially treatment strategies. The most common and less intensive of these treatment strategies are that of the pharmaceutical therapies. Often, these drug regimes range from the daily aspirin intake to angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), to ÃŽ ²-blockers and nitrates [12]. These drug therapies often lower the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Unfortunately daily drug regimes do not work for everyone. Some people have their coronary heart dise ase surgically corrected either by angioplasty (insertion of stent to keep the blocked vessel open) or by means of a more complex surgery consisting of a single to multiple coronary artery bypass. With everything considered, drug therapies and surgical correction are only a means of correcting the problem; patients are also encouraged to increase physical activity and change their daily dietary habits in becoming more successful in reducing risk of development or progression of coronary artery disease. These different forms of coronary heart disease are very closely related to one another, more importantly, closely related to atherosclerosis. As discussed previously, coronary heart diseases are characterized by the narrowing or stenosis of the coronary vessels, usually caused by the atherosclerotic plaque formation due to endothelial cell dysfunction. As a result, atherosclerosis is the underlying mechanism for ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris (stable, unstable, and variant), myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death [12]. Therefore it is important to understand the cellular pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which will lead to a better understanding resulting in better prevention and treatment strategies for all forms of atheroma induced coronary heart disease. Introduction to Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis, the primary etiology of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by intimal plaque that forms as a time-dependent response to arterial injury [14]. Atherosclerosis is a disease affecting the arterial blood vessels, which is commonly known as â€Å"hardening of the arteries.† This form of coronary heart disease is the principle source of both cerebral and myocardial infarction, gangrene of the extremities, and loss of function of both organs and tissues [15]; this disease is ultimately responsible for a majority of deaths in North America, Europe, and Japan [16]. The method of atherogenesis is not fully understood, however there are a number of current models that suggest that stressors corrupt the vascular integrity allowing the abnormal accumulation of lipids, cells and extracellular matrix within the arterial wall [7]. Due to its very slow progression, it is not surprising that atherosclerosis goes undetected and remains asymptomatic until the atheroma obstr ucts the blood flow within the artery [14,16]; hence atherosclerosis is often referred to as the â€Å"silent killer†. Often, the atherosclerotic plaque can be divided into three distinct components. The first being the atheroma, which is the nodular accumulation of the soft, flaky, and yellow material of the plaques, usually composed of macrophages closest to the lumen of the artery. The second component is the underlying areas of cholesterol crystals, and the third is the calcification at the outer base of the older/more advanced lesions [17]. Collectively, these components constitute the basis of the atherosclerotic plaques. These atherosclerotic plaques are responsible for the arterial narrowing (stenosis) or they may rupture and provoke thrombosis [7, 14, 15]; either way the atherosclerotic plaque causes an insufficient blood supply to the heart and other organs. As discussed previously, the atherosclerotic plaques lead to other major complications such as ischemia, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, and causes impaired blood flow to the kidneys and lower extremities. Interestingly, arteries without many branches (internal mammary or radial arteries) tend not to develop atherosclerosis [5]. One of the most evidence-based hypotheses regarding atherogenesis is that of the response-to-injury hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that the atherosclerotic lesions represent a specialized form of a protective, inflammatory, fibroproliferative response to various forms of insult to the arterial wall [15]. This seems to be a reoccurring theme, as now atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation between modified lipoproteins, monocyte derived macrophages, T cells, and normal cellular elements of the arterial wall [16, 18]. As with other diseases, there are a number of physiological factors that increases one’s risk for developing atherosclerosis. These factors include: age, sex, diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, tobacco smoking, estrogen status, physical inactivity, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia [7, 19]. The remainder of this paper will shift its focus to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis including the ideas of endothelial dysfunction, lipoprotein entry and modification, recruitment of leukocytes, recruitment of smooth muscle; as well as other contributing factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Also, the cellular complications of atherosclerosis will be discussed. Endothelial Dysfunction – Primary Initiation of Atherosclerosis: Healthy arteries are often responsive to various stimuli, including the shear stress of blood flow and various neurogenic signals. These endothelial cells secrete substances that modulate contraction and dilation of the smooth muscle cells of the underlying medial layer [7]. These healthy endothelial cells are also responsible for the inhibition of migration of smooth muscle cells to the intimal layer [20] and they also play an important role in immune responses. Normal functional characteristics of healthy endothelium includes: i) ability to act as a permeable barrier between the intravascular and tissue space, ii) ability to modify and transport lipoproteins into the vessel wall, iii) acts as a non-thrombogenic and non-leukocyte adherent surface, iv) acting as a source of vasoactive molecules, v) act as a source of growth regulatory molecules, and vi) a source of connective tissue matrix molecules [14, 15]. Overall, in a normal, healthy state, the endothelial layer provides a prote ctive, non-thrombogenic surface with homeostatic vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties [7]. It is widely known that the endothelium is responsible for the synthesis and release of several vasodilators such as: NO, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs), endothelial derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), and prostacyclin (PGI2) [7, 20]. These vasodilators utilize a G-coupled signaling pathway, where NO diffuses from the endothelium to the vascular smooth muscle where it activates guanylyl cyclase (G-cyclase) [7]. The G-cyclase in turn forms cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from cGTP; an increase in cGMP results in smooth muscle relaxation which subsequently involves a reduction of cytosolic Ca2+. Aside from these anti-thrombic substances, the endothelium also produces prothrombic molecules including endothelin-1 and other endothelium derived contracting factors (EDFCs) [20]. Importantly, the endothelium derived NO not only modulates the tone of the underlying vascular smooth muscle, but is also responsible for the inhibition of several proatherogenic processes. These processes include smooth muscle proliferation and recruitment, platelet aggregation, oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDLs), monocyte and leukocyte recruitment, platelet adhesion, and the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines [20]. Therefore, relating back to the response-to-injury hypothesis, loss of these endothelial functions promotes endothelial dysfunction, thus acting as the primary event in atherogenesis. Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initiating event which leads to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. For this reason endothelial dysfunction has been shown to be of prognostic significance in predicting such vascular events as heart attacks or strokes [21]. It has been established that endothelial cell dysfunction is characterized by alterations in vascular permeability and inadequate production of NO [4, 22, 23]; thus predisposing the endothelium to the development of atheromas. Interestingly, in response to initial atheroma formation, the arteries often dilate, causing outward remodeling of the vessel for this accommodation [4]; however if this remodeling is insufficient, the blood flow is impaired, thus causing ischemia [4]. Several physical and chemical factors are responsible for affecting normal endothelial function. Some common factors discussed previously include diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, age, diet, and physical inactivity. However, more importantly are the physiological factors: i) impairment of the permeable barrier, ii) release of inflammatory cytokines, iii) increase transcription of cell-surface adhesion molecules, iv) altered release of vasoactive substances (PGI2 and NO), and v) interference with normal anti-thrombotic properties [7]. Commonly, endothelial dysfunction is characterized by the reduction of vasodilators NO and PGI2, and the increase of various endothelial derived contracting factors [23, 24]. This impairment may also predispose the vessels to vasospasm [22]. This decrease in NO bioavailability is thought to cause a decreased level of expression of endothelial cell NO synthetase (eNOS) [21], thus reducing the likelihood of vasodilation from occurring. Apart from its vasodilatory role, NO is also responsible for resisting inflammatory activation of endothelial functions such as expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 [5]. NO has also appeared to exert anti-inflammatory action at the level of gene expression by interfering with nuclear factor kappa B (NFÃŽ ºB), which is important in regulating numerous genes involved in inflammatory responses [5]; these inflammatory responses will be discussed later on. The other common vasodilator, PGI2 is also reduced during endothelial dysfunction. PGI2 is a major product of vascular cyclooxygenase (COX) and is considered a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation [20]. Like NO, PGI2 is an endothelial derived product which is often produced in response to shear stress (commonly caused by blood flow) and hypoxia [20]. By understanding the other roles NO and PGI2 play within the endothelium, we can see that a decrease in one or the other ultimately leads to dysfunction and disruption of the endothelium. As a result of vasodilator reduction, the endothelium often synthesizes and releases EDCFs causing endothelial constriction. The major constrictors include superoxide anions (which act by scavenging NO – thus further reducing NO levels), thromboxane A2, endothelin-1, AII, and ÃŽ ±-adrenergic factors [20]. Unlike the vasodilators, the vasoconstrictors utilize two signaling pathways. The ÃŽ ± 1-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways utilize the same G-coupled pathway as the vasodilators (discussed previously) however instead of cGMP; it ut ilizes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) [1]. The other constrictors including thromboxane A2, endothelin-1 and AII utilize the cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway; where the activated kinase acts as a trigger for various physiological effects, including increased contractile activity on the arterioles [1]. The overall progression of atherosclerotic plaque formation is best illustrated in Figure 1, which showcases multiple events that are simultaneously triggered by endothelial dysfunction. Apart from the imbalance of vasoactivators, endothelial dysfunction is responsible for initiating two other separate pathways that also participate in the progression of plaque formation and growth. Lipoprotein entry is the next initial stage in atherogenesis. This is then followed by the modification and entry of lipoproteins, the recruitment of leukocytes, and the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Overall this â€Å"evolutionary† process best represents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques within the vessels. Lipoprotein Entry and Modification: Lipid accumulation is another major manifestation of the vascular response to injury, and is accelerated by the entry and modification of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are composed of both lipids and proteins, and help transport water-insoluble fats throughout the bloodstream [7, 25]. The lipid core is surrounded by hydrophilic phospholipids, free cholesterol and apoliporoteins; where the protein portion has a charged group, aimed outwards to attack water molecules, thus making the lipoproteins soluble in the plasma of the blood [26, 27]. In total, there are five major classes of lipoproteins: the chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate low density lipoproteins (ILDLs), low density lipoproteins (LDLs), and the high density lipoproteins (HDLs). The chylomicrons provide the primary means of transport of dietary lipids, while the VLDLs, ILDLs, LDLs, and HDLs function to transport endogenous lipids [16, 25]. Of the lipoproteins, the LDLs are of most interest. Inter estingly high LDL levels often correlate closely with atherosclerosis development, whereas high HDL levels protect against atherosclerosis; the HDL protection is thought to be related to its ability to transport lipids away from the peripheral tissues back to the liver for disposal [7]. A key component to the accumulation of lipids is due to the endothelial dysfunction, which causes a loss of selective permeability and barrier function. This ineffective permeability allows for the entry of LDLs into the intima lining of the vessels [7, 16]. The highly elevated circulating levels of LDLs are colloquially referred to as having hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, or dyslipidemia [7, 25-27]. In either case, once the LDL has entered the intima of the vessel, the LDL starts accumulating in the subendothelial space by binding to components of the extracellular matrix, the proteoglycans; lipolytic and lysosomal enzymes also play a role in lipid accumulation [27]. Importantly, statins lower circulating cholesterol levels by indirectly inhibiting HMG CoA-reductase (rate limiting enzyme required for endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis [16]. This results in the decrease of intracellular cholesterol levels, which leads to the activation of SREBP, upregulation of LDL receptors, and the clearance from plasma degradation of LDL; thus reducing circulating LDL levels [16]. When the lipid accumulation increases the residence time that the LDL occupies within the vessel wall, it allows more time for lipoprotein modification [7]; which appears to play a key role in the continued progression of the atherosclerotic plaque. Often, endothelial cell dysfunction leads to the altered expression of lipoprotein receptors used to internalize and modify various lipoproteins [14]. These changes usually occur via oxidative modifications. The oxidative modification hypothesis (figure 2) focuses on the concept that LDLs in their native state are often not atherogenic [27]. It is believed, however, that LDLs are modified chemically by the endothelial cells [26] and are readily internalized by macrophages (formation of the foam cell) via the ‘scavenger-receptor’ pathway [27]. Essentially the â€Å"trapped† LDL within the subendothelial space is oxidized by the resident vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. As a result t

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Mythological Women Essay

Attitudes toward women in mythology reflect the attitudes that still exist today around the world. In mythology women always seem to mess up and make mistakes. Women are viewed as incapable in mythology. The attitudes toward women in both Judeo-Christian/Western and Greek mythology are negative. One of the three types of mythology that are going to be discussed about is humanity mythology. In Judeo-Christian/Western humanity mythology, there is the parable of â€Å"Adam and Eve†. In â€Å"Adam and Eve†, God tells them to not eat from the forbidden tree. Eve, the woman, is tempted and ends up disobeying God by eating an apple from the tree that was forbidden. On the other hand, in Greek humanity mythology there is the story of Pandora. Pandora was given a box and was told to never open the box. Curiosity got the best of Pandora and she ended up disobeying by opening the box. In humanity mythology women are portrayed as not being able to follow instructions and obey. The next type of mythology is the animal/plant mythology. In Judeo-Christian/Western animal/plant mythology, you have the parable of â€Å"Adam and Eve† again. In the parable, Adam the man, is given the responsibility to name the animals. While in Greek animal/plant mythology, you have the myth of how spiders came to be. There was a Goddess named Athena who challenged Arachne at weaving. Arachne was the best weaver there. After loosing, Athena turned Arachne into a spider so she would weave webs forever. In animal/plant mythology, women are viewed as incapable to complete tasks and also viewed as jealous. The last type of mythology is hero mythology. In Judeo-Christian/Western hero mythology, you have superhero and trickster schemes. Without a trickster there is no superhero to solve the problem. In the superhero community, almost every superhero is male. On the other hand, in Greek hero mythology you have The Odyssey. In The Odyssey, you have Odysseus who is away for twenty â€Å"long† years. Odysseus’s wife has been mourning for his arrival and has remained clean and faithful. In the meantime, Odysseus is sleeping with other women. Hero mythology portrays the dominance of men and their image of strength. Hero mythology also portrays the double standard of  what men expect for women. In conclusion, bad attitudes toward women that are seen in Judeo-Christian/Western and Greek mythology still exist today. In humanity mythology, women are portrayed as incapable of obeying and following instructions. In animal/plant mythology, women are viewed as incapable to complete tasks and also very jealous. In hero mythology, men are seen as the ones with dominance, strength, and superiority and you can see a double standard in the expectations of morality. The attitudes toward women in both Judeo-Christian/Western and Greek mythology are negative.

Friday, January 10, 2020

System Forensics

System forensics is the process of systematically examining computer media as well as network components, software, and memory for evidence. System forensics involves collecting, preserving, analyzing, and documenting evidence to reconstruct user actively. Appropriately collected evidence Is often presented In court to solve criminal cases and prosecute criminals. 2. How has technology improved the way criminal investigators perform their job?Technology improved the way criminal investigators perform their jobs by making it easier to track things, there is different types of software out there today to help them with these issues, and make the Jobs easier, when you have different technology to help. 3. Why would a company report or not report a compromise case? The reason a company may or may not report a compromise because If It's not in their favor and they may report It If It's In their favor and vice versa. They wouldn't want to look Incompetent. 4. Who Is In charge of labeling a nd securing sensitive Information?The one In charge of labeling and securing sensitive information is the forensic specialist. 5. What is the Daubers standard? The Daubers Standard provides a rule of evidence regarding the admissibility of expert witnesses' testimony during united States federal legal proceedings. 6. Why would someone use a hex editor in a forensic investigation? The reason someone would use a hex editor in a forensic Investigation is if the suspect has deleted files and has overwritten them on his or her hard disk, you can always use a hex editor to view any data stored In (or deleted from) both files and disk sectors.A hex editor allows you to peek at the physical contents stored on a disk, regardless of he boundaries of files, directories, or partitions. 7. What is the largest known data loss incident to date? The largest known data loss incident to date Adobe systems, Inc – 10-3-2013, 8. What group runs tallboys? Open Security Foundation runs tallboys. 9. On the website Tallboys. Org, of the largest 20 incidents, how many of them were computer hacks as opposed to other Issues like stolen laptops and lost drives? 1% of the Incidents were computer hacks as opposed to the other Issues. 10. What built-Len Windows tool Is used to manage the Encrypted File System (FEES)? The certificates is was is used to manage the FEES.. . What is the presumption of innocence? All people accused off crime are legally presumed to be innocent until they are convicted, either in a trial or as a result of pleading guilty. This presumption means not only that the prosecutor must convince the Jury of the defendant's guilt, but also that the defendant need not say or do anything in his own defense.If the prosecutor can't convince the Jury that the defendant is guilty, the defendant goes free. 2. The presumption of innocence, coupled with the fact that the prosecutor must prove the defendant's guilt beyond a reasonable doubt, makes it difficult for the overspen t to put innocent people behind bars. 3. What is hearsay and provide an example when Computer evidence can be considered hearsay? â€Å"Hearsay' refers to statements made outside of court of law an example of Computer evidence that is considered hearsay is 4.What is system integrity? System integrity is the state of a system where it is performing its intended functions without being degraded or impaired by changes or disruptions in its internal or external environments 5. What skills are required by an expert witness? The skills required by an expert witness are: A background in law, law enforcement, or investigation. A membership in professional associations of computer forensic examiners, formal training, and certification. A thorough knowledge of the subject matter and tools.Investigators must understand the kind of potential evidence they sought and analyzed and understand the tools they used to gather and preserve evidence. They should be accurate, truthful and impartial. 6. Locate and read the opinion Daubers v. Merrill DOD Pharmaceuticals. What was the case about? The Daubers v. Merrill DOD Pharmaceuticals was about two children ho had been born with birth defects and their parents sue Merrill DOD Pharmaceuticals Inc, claiming that the drug Benedictine caused the birth defects. 7. What was the outcome of the case?The district court granted summary Judgment for Merrill DOD, and Daubers and Schuler appealed to the Ninth Circuit. 8. What previous Supreme Court ruling was superseded by the Federal Rules of Evidence as the standard for admitting expert scientific testimony? The previous Supreme Court ruling was superseded by the Federal Rules of Evidence as the standard for admitting expert scientific testimony was the Fryer's â€Å"general acceptance† Daubers puts the responsibility of the admissibility of evidence by placing the Judge in the role of â€Å"gatekeeper†.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Hills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway Essay

Ernest Hemingway’s, â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants†, was first published in August of 1927 but it was not until briefly after the lone publication of this esoteric short story that it received the notability it deserved; accompanied by many other encapsulating short stories, â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† in addition to the thirteen other short stories published by Hemingway in October of 1927 made up his second collection of short stories, â€Å"Men Without Women†. Nevertheless, William Shakespeare’s, â€Å"Hamlet†, was the longest play ever written by the Englishman estimated to be written sometime within the late 16th and early 17th century; â€Å"Hamlet† is revered not only as one of Shakespeare’s greatest literary work but also as one of the most†¦show more content†¦This is notable in the conversation between the two as a child’s life figuratively depends on the outcome of this brief un-honest conversa tion, which is assumably another intended message by Hemingway directed at perceptive readers of his short story. As mentioned, the absurdity of the conversation between the two lovers is present within their communication, but this also displays the absurdity of the human condition as both characters lack the honesty to be frank or straightforward with each other. This trait is not only common within the victorian conservatism of the 1920’s and 1930’s but also in the present day. The subtly in which Hemingway stresses the dishonesty between â€Å"The American† and â€Å"Jig† is apparent in the retraction of the observation made by â€Å"Jig†. When â€Å"Jig† says, â€Å"They’re lovely hills† and â€Å"They don’t really like look like white elephants. I just meant the colouring of their skin through the trees† it is obvious by this statement that her emotions or opinion regarding abortion have changed (â€Å"Jig † is now considering keeping the child). Typical of his character, â€Å"The American† suggests the two should have another drink, plainly ignoring or not paying any attention to the opinion of â€Å"Jig† (which is another effort of Hemingway’s to show the couples inability to communicate truthfully). Alcohol plays a less important role in the absurdity of â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants†; however, it is still a strong metaphor forShow MoreRelatedHills Like White Elephants by Ernest Hemingway580 Words   |  2 PagesE.B. White once said, â€Å"Theres no limit to how complicated things can get, on account of one thing always leading to another.† This quotation means that nobody ever knows how complicated things are going to get, and on top of that they can get worse. One can agree with this statement because in life you can go through unexpected situations that really affect your life in a negative way, and in life things might get worse. Bo th Soldiers home by Ernest Hemingway and Hills like white elephants by ErnestRead More`` Hills Like White Elephants `` By Ernest Hemingway886 Words   |  4 Pagesreader could put themselves into. Whether they choose to partake in a wayward journey full of adventure or the daily life of a human being with morals; a story’s aspect influences those thoughts with a deeper understanding. In Ernest Hemingway’s â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants,† it follows an American man and girl at a resting point during their travels. They arrived by train, stopping between Barcelona and Madrid. While there, they patiently waited for the next train at a bar inside of the station.Read MoreHills Like White Elephants By Ernest Hemingway893 Words   |  4 Pages Ernest Hemingway was a prolific writer. His short story, â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† shows the tense situation between a man and a woman on vacation. Hemingway chooses to be vague in many ways. He never gives real names to his characters, nor explicitly states where they are besides hinting that they are in Spain. Additionally, he leaves it entirely to the reader to discover what the couple is discussing. By only providing information to the reader through only the dialogue of the two centralRead More`` Hills Like White Elephants `` By Ernest Hemingway939 Words   |  4 PagesThe short story â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† written by Ernest Hemingway, is an intriguing literary work that foretells the story of a man and a woman waiting for a train, whilst discussing their feelings and emotions towards the surgical operation that is about to occur on the woman. Although the story was originally written in August 1927, the piece was later published in Hemingway’s short story collection ‘Men Without Women’. The text includes a wide variety of literary terms and has various criticalRead MoreHills Like White Elephants By Ernest Hemingway990 Words   |  4 Pages Another relationship coming to an end†¦ Throughout the story â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† written in 1927 by Ernest Hemingway, he used the train station setting, the desired operation, and obviously the relationship between the American and the girl to symbolize a crumbling relationship and unwanted gift between them. The American and the girl find themselves wound up in a rough, unplanned situation that they are trying to fix. Many bread crumbs are dropped throughout the story to symbolize a collapsingRead MoreHills Like White Elephants By Ernest Hemingway1446 Words   |  6 PagesErnest Hemingway’s short story â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† explores the topics of abortion, sex before marriage, and feelings of separation. There are many different points of view one can take on Hemingway’s work. The main literary analysis that will be explained is the significance of the title and how it is layered into the story in various places. In addition to this, the narrator’s point of view will also be discussed since it plays a role in bringing the characters together. Lastly, it willRead More`` Hills Like White Elephants `` By Ernest Hemingway1750 Words   |  7 PagesErnest Hemingway’s stories are known for their ever interpreting meanings behind them, and â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† does not trail from the rest due to the never mentioned word ‘abortion’. â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants,† written by Ernest Hemingway, takes place around World War 1 in Spain, at a train station (Hills Like White Elephants. 4). An American man and a girl have been discussing the girl’s unspecific operation. It is apparent that the girl is perturbed about this operation, while theRead MoreHills Like White Elephants By Ernest Hemingway1037 Words   |  5 PagesOlivia Sellers English 102 Scheck February 10, 2016 â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† by Ernest Hemingway Ernest Hemingway’s â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† can be puzzling and hard to decipher. Due to this, a number of conclusions can be drawn away from the text. The dialog between characters leaves a number of questions unanswered and leaves the reader confused about the conversation as a whole. Many things are left unsaid and not explained in the story, with that being the case, the reader must takeRead More`` Hills Like White Elephant `` By Ernest Hemingway865 Words   |  4 Pagesbefore it begins, or as easily getting rid of problem before it even became one. In the short story â€Å"Hills like White Elephant†, the compensation of abortion can easily be seen between Jig and her American lover’s decision whether to keep the innocent’s life or not. Ernest Hemingway uses the fiction element plot, symbolism, and setting to illustrate the theme of abortion in â€Å"Hills like White Elephants.† Abortion has been viewed as a crucial struggle between couples. Many view this situation as endingRead MoreHills Like White Elephants, by Ernest Hemingway1432 Words   |  6 Pagesunderstood behaviors. Ernest Hemingway weaves both of these stereotypes into his short story â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants.† The story’s plot revolves around a couple arguing about whether or not to have an abortion. In Hemingway’s â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants† a theme of male domination can be found, but by examining the dialogue closely, a theme of females asserting their will and manipulating emerges as well. Male domination is the primary and most obvious theme in â€Å"Hills Like White Elephants.† During the

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Should Alcohol Be An Addiction - 902 Words

When it comes to the topic of alcohol, most of us will readily agree that yes it is an addiction. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of no alcohol is not an addiction. Whereas some are convinced that yes it is, others maintain that no it is not. Anyone can be addicted to alcohol, but alcohol is not in and of itself an addiction. The capacity of absorbing alcohol in tremendous amounts can occur over weeks or years, which can lead the individual not to have an addiction to alcohol. Many will ask the question of can excessive use of alcohol become an addiction? No, alcohol cannot be an addiction, some would contest consumption that consuming alcohol is for mere fun. Others still maintain the fact that the addiction is more of a destructive behavior because that is what occurred in their confusion. They argue, in fact, there is no major result of alcohol other than the fact an individual becomes drunk to cover up pain that doesn’t lead the person to bec ome an addict. Another question asked, could alcohol lead to having other addictions? No, Scientists have discovered points of alcohol addictions and whether or not it is even an addiction but more of a disease. In all actuality, these scientists retain of alcoholism is more heredity rather than an addiction, since they look at it as a â€Å"neuroanatomical† this focuses on the individuals affects of emotions of happiness or melancholy. Researchers indicate the basics of what they callShow MoreRelatedAddiction: More Than Just a Word Essay example1279 Words   |  6 PagesAddiction: More Than Just a Word â€Å"Prevention usually is translated as parents having conversations with their adolescent children, pointing out the dangers of alcohol.† (Kramer, LizSprague, Nancy, Alcohol Abuse Youth: An Overview). Children do not understand the effectiveness of something powerful like alcohol. They do, however, understand that alcohol can cause a person to become intoxicated. From seeing it on TV, they think it is fun. Also, children do not really pay attention to theRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol On The Human Body786 Words   |  4 Pagesfocuses on alcohol addiction. Alcohol is a flammable liquid which often intoxicates drinks (WebMD, 2016). Examples of the drinks include beer, wine, and other beverages. Component parts of this interest includes what factors that influence or encourage alcohol usage and addiction?, What methods are utilized to decrease one’s alcohol usage?, and what are the effects of alcohol on the human body? I became curious about this question because I have family members and relatives who suffer from alcohol addictionRead MoreAlcohol Dependence: A Case Study1243 Words   |  5 PagesVIGNETTE CASE STUDY Alcohol is not merely a recreational drink. It is a tool to destroy personal and family lives if uncontrolled. Different people have different levels of control over the use of alcohol where some can actually use it only on occasions while others mess up their lives for it. Teens particularly are prone to the hazards of alcohol if they start quitting school to. The role of family is very significant in helping alcoholics overcome their addiction and lead a healthy non-alcoholicRead MoreEssay on The Concept of Dual Addiction1232 Words   |  5 PagesThe Concept of Dual Addiction This research paper will focus on the concept of dual addiction specifically, that of alcohol addiction and simultaneous nicotine addiction. I should make note at this point of my personal interest in the addictive process is a result of the existence of addiction in my family. I have experienced and observed the chaos, hardships and tragedies in my family as a result of the progressive nature of the addiction process. First, I would like to provide a general definitionRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol And Drugs On Society Essay1510 Words   |  7 PagesEven more significant is the abuse of alcohol and how alcohol has affected modern society. For several decades, alcohol and drugs has been a major problem in our society. Not only has the drug problem increased but also drug related problems are rising day by day. There is no crime in the world that kills teenagers more than alcohol does. Those substances affect the body in many ways. As they say, anything that anyone gets addicted to is called addiction. Addiction is partly Biological, psychologicalRead MoreAlcohol Addiction Causes, Treatment And Tips Essay811 Words   |  4 PagesAlcohol Addiction Causes, Treatment and Tips By Lourdes Amil | Submitted On January 11, 2011 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Lourdes Amil There are many methods to take steps to correctingRead MoreThe Long Lasting Effect of Alcohol on The Brain1208 Words   |  5 Pagesnearly 80,000 people die from alcohol-related causes, making it the third leading preventable cause of death in our country† (Alcohol Facts 1). Alcoholism is a major controversy in the United States, and many debate whether alcoholism is a disease or choice. Accordingly, based on scientific evidence, alcoholism is a disease because it has major long-term effects on the brain, it is an addiction, and it is treated medically. The first major reason alcoholism should be considered disease is the long-lastingRead MoreThe Psychology Of Addictive Behaviors1333 Words   |  6 PagesBehaviors in the life of Adolescence When dealing with addictive behaviors in Psychology, people find that adolescents are more likely to get involved with addictions and uncontrollable wants with things such as alcohol, smoking, drugs, sex, and much more. With those subjects listed, the age groups more prone to opening up doors to these addictions are the ages of 18-23. This is said for a number of reasons. There is loneliness from living away from home, there is more personal responsibility to manageRead More Drug And Alcohol Abuse Essay994 Words   |  4 Pagesof Missouri, the issue I would encourage him to address is the manufacture of drugs and the use of drugs and alcohol throughout our state. The advice I would give him is to impose stiffer penalties for those who manufacture drugs and focus on prevention, and, most importantly, rehabilitation, of those who abuse alcohol or drugs.According to the Missouri Department of Mental Health, alcohol and drug abuse affects more than 259,000 Missourians and another 800, 000 who are family members of substanceRead MoreWhat Drug Did The French Doctor Use Help Rein His Cravings For Alcohol? Essay1380 Words   |  6 PagesWhat drug did the French doctor use to help curb his cravings for alcohol? In order to curb his cravings for alcohol, the French doctor used a muscle relaxant named baclofen to â€Å"flip a switch† and get rid of his cravings for alcohol. He initially tried lower doses which did not seem to have an effect, but higher doses of the drug allowed the doctor to rid himself of the cravings for alcohol, and eventually he was indifferent to alcohol after the drug. Later it was found that there were more cases where

Monday, December 16, 2019

Pride And Prejudice By Jane Austen - 2500 Words

Hayden Webster Mr. Drake AP Lit 12 January 2014 Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen (1813) Elizabeth Bennet: Elizabeth Bennet is the protagonist of the novel. Her prejudice and tendency to pass quick judgment (hence the novel’s title) takes a large effect on her relationships, especially her relationship with Mr. Darcy. Unimpressed by wealth and status, she differs from her somewhat naà ¯ve sister Jane in that she allows herself to see that humans are flawed beings. Put simply—Elizabeth is â€Å"real.† Elizabeth is initially put off by what she sees as superficial attempts by Mr. Darcy to win her over with arrogance and flashes of status, however, Darcy is intrigued by Elizabeth’s wit and intelligence, a far cry from many women of her time. However, though Elizabeth is in fact prejudiced, she is self-aware. As she grows to realize Mr. Darcy’s true character, and, consequently, her love for her, she admits to both herself and to him that she loves him—an act of swallowing her pride. Mr. Darcy: In the sense of possessing both pride and prejudice, Mr. Darcy is Elizabeth’s counterpart. Coming from a wealthy family, his high status, intelligence, and wealth gives him an inflated sense of pride and also a prejudice that creates a tendency to judge those below him. Such arrogance makes him a generally disliked character, though his status is envied. However, Elizabeth is unimpressed by wealth, and is extremely unreceptive to his advances at first—she turns down his marriage proposal,Show MoreRelatedPride And Prejudice By Jane Austen Essay1724 Words   |  7 PagesThe 18th century novel, Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen, is a fascinating book about a young woman’s struggle with family and love. Pride and Prejudice was originally published in 1813, but, the most common version of the story, and the one used for this research, is from the version published in 1892, still by only Jane Austen, though many other authors have contributed to this book over time. Austen often references the class system at the time, often noting one of the multiple heroine’s struggleRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen1467 Words   |  6 Pages Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen is a classic novel that has remained relevant even years after its release. Its themes and symbols are understandable to even the most modern of reader. One of the many themes is sisterhood, something that is focused on constantly throughout the novel. Elizabeth Bennet, the protagonist of the novel, finds many of her decisions to be based upon the actions of her sisters. Making sisterhood a main driving force. Whether they are confiding in each other for marriageRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen872 Words   |  4 PagesIn my personal cherished novel, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, the worlds of two immensely divergent people display the marxist idea of the importance of social status and its affect on the people. The two main characters seem to be on opposite ends of the earth in terms of an affluent Mr. Darcy being so privileged while on the contrary, Miss Elizabeth Bennet is of a lower class. Throughout the novel, there is a fine distinction between their clashing opinions and actions that are highly influencedRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen Essay1711 Words   |  7 Pageshe 18th century novel, Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen, is a fascinating book about a young woman’s struggle with family and love. Pride and Prejudice was originally published in 1813, but, the most common version of the story, and the one used for this research, is from the version published in 1892, still by only Jane Austen, though many other authors have contributed to this book over time. Austen often references the class system at the time, often noting one of the multiple heroine’s struggleRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen1285 Words   |  6 PagesPride and Prejudice Analysis I.Introduction Jane Austen wrote her novels during the time period known as the Regency. The Enlightenment and the Age of Reason, a time where ideas like democracy, secularism, and the rise of developing sciences were making their way across Europe had come to an end.It was replaced with the wave of horror that was the French Revolution, a once minor revolt that escalated into a violent war, concluding with the rise of Napoleon, which whom England fought against the majorityRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen1384 Words   |  6 PagesNicole Voyatzis Professor W. Acres HISTORY 1401E May 26, 2015 Discussion Paper - Pride and Prejudice Pride and Prejudice written in 1813 by Jane Austen tells the story of The Bennet’s and their five unmarried daughters. The family live as part of the lower gentry in early 19th century England. With that being said, Mrs. Bennet’s primary focus in life is to ensure that all her daughters are married, preferably to wealthy men. The book begins with Mrs. Bennet seeing an opportunity for her daughtersRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen1570 Words   |  7 PagesThe comical novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen depicts the love life of women in the early 1800’s. Austen shows the hardships young women in that time period had to go threw to find their place in this world. Women were thought of as objects to the men, they were supposed to be stay at home mothers, or simple just a accessory to their partner. Women were the subordinates in life, as they still are today. Austen tells the story of how Mrs. Bennet (a mother of 5) works tirelessly to get her daughte rsRead MoreJane Austen: Pride and Prejudice 1086 Words   |  5 PagesJane Austen, born December 16, 1775, was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction earned her a place as one of the most widely read authors in English literature. Austen’s novels critique the life of the second half of the eighteenth century and are part of the transition to nineteenth-century realism. Though her novels were by no means autobiographical, her fictional characters do shed light on the facts of her life and but more importantly, they offered aspiring writers a model of howRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen914 Words   |  4 Pages Bell 1 Natalie Bell Pedersen English 4 honors 29 February 2016 Pride and Prejudice Essay Jane Austen s novel, Pride and Prejudice, focuses on the social conflicts of England during the 1800s. Elizabeth Bennet and Mr. Darcy fall in love, and face social criticism. Mr. Darcy struggles with the ideology of societal expectations while falling in love with Elizabeth Bennet. After persistent self-reflection, Mr. Darcy overcomes the stereotype of whom he should marry, and marries ElizabethRead More Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen 1104 Words   |  5 Pagesrate of over 50% from 1970-2010. However, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, marriage was often one of the few choices for a woman’s occupation. Reading Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen from the twenty-first century perspective might make some matters that are stressed in the book seem dated or trivial. As Pride and Prejudice was set sometime during the Napoleonic Wars, it is only fitting that finding a proper marriage is on the minds of many of the women in the book. Marriage and marrying