Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Emma Watsons UN Speech on Gender Equality On Sep. 20,Ã 2014, British actor and Goodwill Ambassador for U.N. Women Emma WatsonÃ gave a smart, important, and moving speech about gender inequality and how to fight it. In doing so, she launched the HeForShe initiative, which aims to get men and boys to join the feminist fight for gender equality. In the speech, Watson made the important point that in order for gender equality to be achieved, harmful and destructive stereotypes of masculinity and behavioral expectations for boys and men have got to change. Biography Emma Watson is a British actress and model born in 1990, who is best known for her 10-year stint as Hermione Granger in the eight Harry Potter movies. Born in Paris, France to a pair of now-divorced British lawyers, she made a reported $15 million dollars for playing Granger in each of the last two Harry Potter films. Watson began taking acting classes at six years of age and was selected for the Harry Potter cast in 2001 at age nine. She attended the Dragon School at Oxford, and then the Headington private girls school. Eventually, she received a bachelors degree in English literature at Brown University in the United States. Watson has been actively involved in humanitarian causes for several years, working to promote fair trade and organic clothing, and as an ambassador for Camfed International, a movement to educate girls in rural Africa. Celebrity Feminism Watson is one of several women in the arts who have leveraged their high profile status to bring womens rights issues to the public eye. The list includes Jennifer Lawrence, Patricia Arquette, Rose McGowan, Annie Lennox, Beyonce, Carmen Maura, Taylor Swift, Lena Dunham, Katy Perry, Kelly Clarkson, Lady Gaga, and Shailene Woodley, although some have refused to self-identify as feminists. These women have been both celebrated and criticized for the positions they have taken; the term celebrity feminist is sometimes used to denigrate their credentials or question their authenticity, but there is no doubt that their championships of different causes have shed public light into myriad issues. The U.N. and HeForShe Eduardo Munoz Alvarez / Getty Images In 2014, Watson was named a U.N. Women Goodwill Ambassador by the United Nations, a program that actively involves prominent personalities in the fields of arts and sports to promote U.N. programs. Her role is to serve as an advocate for U.N. Womens gender equality campaign known as HeForShe. HeForShe, led by the U.N.s Elizabeth Nyamayaro and under the direction of Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, is a program dedicated to improving the status of women and inviting men and boys around the world to stand in solidarity with women and girls as they make that make gender equality a reality. The speech at the United Nations was part of her official role as U.N. Women Goodwill Ambassador. Below is theÃ full transcript of her 13-minute speech; after that is a discussion of the speechs reception. Emma Watsons Speech at the U.N. Today we are launching a campaign called HeForShe. I am reaching out to you because we need your help. We want to end gender inequality, and to do this, we need everyone involved. This is the first campaign of its kind at the UN. We want to try to mobilize as many men and boys as possible to be advocates for change. And, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t just want to talk about it. We want to try and make sure that itÃ¢â¬â¢s tangible. I was appointed as Goodwill Ambassador for UN Women sixÃ months ago. And, the more I spoke about feminism, the more I realized that fighting for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights has too often become synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I know for certain, it is that this has to stop. For the record, feminism by definition is the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theory of political, economic and social equality of the sexes. I started questioning gender-based assumptions a long time ago. When I was 8, I was confused for being called bossy because I wanted to direct the plays that we would put on for our parents, but the boys were not. When at 14, I started to be sexualized by certain elements of the media. When at 15, my girlfriends started dropping out of sports teams because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to appear muscly. When at 18, my male friends were unable to express their feelings. I decided that I was a feminist, and this seemed uncomplicated to me. But my recent research has shown me that feminism has become an unpopular word. Women are choosing not to identify as feminists. Apparently, IÃ¢â¬â¢m among the ranks of women whose expressions are seen as too strong, too aggressive, isolating, and anti-men. Unattractive, even. Why has the word become such an uncomfortable one? I am from Britain, and I think it is right I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and decisions that will affect my life. I think it is right that socially, I am afforded the same respect as men. But sadly, I can say that there is no one country in the world where all women can expect to see these rights. No country in the world can yet say that they achieved gender equality. These rights, I consider to be human rights but I am one of the lucky ones. My life is a sheer privilege because my parents didnÃ¢â¬â¢t love me less because I was born a daughter. My school did not limit me because I was a girl. My mentors didnÃ¢â¬â¢t assume I would go less far because I might give birth to a child one day. These influencers were the gender equality ambassadors that made me who I am today. They may not know it, but they are the inadvertent feminists who are changing the world today. And we need more of those. And if you still hate the word, it is not the word that is important. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the idea and the ambition behind it, because not all women have received the same rights I have. In fact, statistically, very few have. In 1995, Hillary Clinton made a famous speech in Beijing about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Sadly, many of the things that she wanted to change are still true today. But what stood out for me the most was that less than thirty percent of the audience were male. How can we effect change in the world when only half of it is invited or feel welcome to participate in the conversation? Men, I would like to take this opportunity to extend your formal invitation. Gender equality is your issue, too. Because to date, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s role as a parent being valued less by society, despite my need of his presence as a child, as much as my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen young men suffering from mental illness, unable to ask for help for fear it would make them less of a man. In fact, in the UK, suicide is the biggest killer of men between 20 to 49, eclipsing road accidents, cancer and coronary heart disease. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen men made fragile and insecure by a distorted sense of what constitutes male success. Men donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the benefits of equality, either. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t often talk about men being imprisoned by gender stereotypes, but I can see that they are, and that when they are free, things will change for women as a natural consequence. If men donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be aggressive in order to be accepted, women wonÃ¢â¬â¢t feel compelled to be submissive. Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive. Both men and women should feel free to be strong. It is time that we all perceive gender on a spectrum, instead of two sets of opposing ideals. If we stop defining each other by what we are not, and start defining ourselves by who we are, we can all be freer, and this is what HeForShe is about. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about freedom. I want men to take up this mantle so that their daughters, sisters, and mothers can be free from prejudice, but also so that their sons have permission to be vulnerable and human too, reclaim those parts of themselves they abandoned, and in doing so, be a more true and complete version of themselves. You might be thinking, Ã¢â¬Å"Who is this Harry Potter girl, and what is she doing speaking at the UN?Ã¢â¬ And, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a really good question. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been asking myself the same thing. All I know is that I care about this problem, and I want to make it better. And, having seen what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen, and given the chance, I feel it is my responsibility to say something. Statesman Edmund Burke said, Ã¢â¬Å"All that is needed for the forces of evil to triumph is for good men and women to do nothing.Ã¢â¬ In my nervousness for this speech and in my moments of doubt, I told myself firmly, Ã¢â¬Å"If not me, who? If not now, when?Ã¢â¬ If you have similar doubts when opportunities are presented to you, I hope those words will be helpful. Because the reality is that if we do nothing, it will take seventy-five years, or for me to be nearly 100 before women can expect to be paid the same as men for the same work. 15.5 million girls will be married in the next 16 years as children. And at current rates it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be until 2086 before all rural African girls will be able to receive a secondary education. If you believe in equality, you might be one of those inadvertent feminists that I spoke of earlier, and for this, I applaud you. We are struggling for a uniting word, but the good news is, we have a uniting movement. It is called HeForShe. I invite you to step forward, to be seen and to ask yourself, Ã¢â¬Å"If not me, who? If not now, when?Ã¢â¬ Thank you very, very much. Reception Most of the public reception for Watsons speech has been positive: The speech got a thunderous standing ovation at U.N. headquarters; Joanna Robinson writing in Vanity Fair called the speech impassioned; and Phil Plait writing in Slate called it stunning. Some positively compared Watsons speech with Hilary Clintons speech to the U.N. 20 years earlier. Other press reports have been less positive. Roxane Gay writing in The Guardian, expressed her frustration that the idea of women asking for the rights that men already have only sells when delivered in the right package: a particular kind of beauty, fame, and/or self-deprecating brand of humor. Feminism should not be something that needs a seductive marketing campaign, she said. Julia Zulwer writing in Al Jazeera wondered why the United Nations picked a foreign, distant figure to be the representative for the women of the world. Maria Jose Gmez Fuentes and colleagues argue that the HeForShe movement as expressed in Watsons speech is an innovative attempt to connect with the experiences of many women, without focusing on the trauma. However, the HeForShe movement asks for the activation of action by the people who hold power. That, say the scholars, denies the agency of women as the subjects of violence, inequality, and oppression, instead giving men the ability to restore this lack of agency, to empower the women and offer them freedom. The will to eradicate gender inequality depends on the will of the males, which is not a traditional feminist principle. The MeToo Movement However, all of this negative reaction predates the #MeToo movement, and the election of Donald Trump, as of course did Watsons speech. There are some signs that feminists of all stripes and across the world are feeling rejuvenated by the open criticism and in many cases the fall of very powerful men because they abused that power. In March of 2017, Watson met and discussed gender equality issues with bell hooks, a powerful icon of the feminist movement since the 1960s. As Alice Cornwall puts it, shared outrage can offer a powerful basis for connection and solidarity that can reach across the differences that might otherwise divide us. And as Emma Watson says, If not me, who? If not now, when? Sources Brady, Anita. Taking Time between G-String Changes to Educate Ourselves: SinÃ ©ad OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, Miley Cyrus, and Celebrity Feminism. Feminist Media Studies 16.3 (2016): 429-44. Print.Cornwall, Andrea. Taking Off International Developments Straightjacket of Gender. Brown Journal of World Affairs 21.1 (2014-2015): 127-39. Print.Gmez Fuentes, MarÃ a JosÃ ©, Emma GÃ ³mez Nicolau, and Rebeca Maseda GarcÃ a. Celebrities, Gender-Based Violence and Womens Rights: Towards the Transformation of the Framework of Recognition. Revista Latina de ComunicaciÃ ³n Social, 71 (2016): 833-52. Print.Gay, Roxane. Emma Watson? Jennifer Lawrence? These Arent the Feminists Youre Looking For. The Guardian October 14, 2014. Web, accessed February 16, 2018.Hamad, Hannah, and Anthea Taylor. Introduction: Feminism and Contemporary Celebrity Culture. Celebrity Studies 6.1 (2015): 124-27. Print.Kennelly, Alexah. #Activism: Identity, Affiliation, and Political Discourse-Making on Twitter. The Arbutus Revi ew 6.1 (2015). Print. MacDonald, Fiona. Knocking Down Walls in Political Science: In Defense of an Expansionist Feminist Agenda. Canadian Journal of Political Science 50.2 (2017): 411-26. Print.Matos, Julie. Womens Rights in Public Address: A Feminist Rhetorical Critique. Colloquy 11 (2015): 1-22. Print.Plait, Phil. I Stand with Emma Watson. Slate September 23, 2014. Web, accessed February 16, 2018.Rottenberg, Catherine. Neoliberal Feminism and the Future of Human Capital. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 42.2 (2017): 329-48. Print.Zulver, Julia. Is Emma Watson the Right Woman For the Job? Al Jazeera September 24, 2014. Web, accessed February 16, 2018.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 2:01 PM
Friday, November 22, 2019
Is Online SAT/ACT Tutoring Right For You SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips You know you want tutoring, but do you go with in-person tutoring or online tutoring? Right now, I can practically hear the face some of you just made at the idea of online tutoring (yes, the face was so awful it actually made a noise). The world is full of dire warnings about the issues with online learning. Ã¢â¬Å"How can you possibly learn if youÃ¢â¬â¢re not in there in person with your teacher? WonÃ¢â¬â¢t you just slack off?Ã¢â¬ On the other side of the issue are people like me, whose reactions to hearing about online tutoring are more along the lines of "Woo! No travel time means I get to spend more time doing non-SAT/ACT-related things!" To help you get a better sense of whether or not online tutoring is right for you, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve blocked out the three areas in which there are significant differences between online and in-person tutoring. For each of these areas, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll explain when online tutoring is the right choiceÃ¢â¬ ¦and when it is not. feature image credit: Thought plus action by Ben Tesch, used under CC BY 2.0. Quality The first dimension to consider when choosing a method of tutoring is that of quality: what level of tutor do you want? This may seem to be a facetious question, since no matter the tutoring method you go with, you obviously you don't want a BAD tutor. It's important, however, when you choose a tutoring method to consider exactly what you want to get out of tutoring. We'll have an article up soon on how to find the best tutor for you. Do you want tutors to help you with new insights into test content, strategies, and more? If so, online tutoring is probably the best option for you. Why? Near, far, wherever you are in the world, online tutoring allows you to access high quality tutors. I'm going to be brutually honest: if you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t in a top city for education like New York or Boston, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s top tutors. This is even more true if you don't live near a top 5 city at all. Don't go with online tutoring ifÃ¢â¬ ¦ All you want is someone to monitor your test prep, making sure you're on schedule and accountable for doing your prep. In this case, you don't even really need a tutor - you need something more like a study buddy or babysitter. Or some sort of electronic surveillance. All you need is someone to explain answers to you better than answer keys can. If this is true for you, then it makes more sense for you to go with a high school student who's taken the test or understands the material. Time and Travel For online tutoring, the road not takenÃ¢â¬ ¦is every road. Consider the time wasted in travel for the average tutoring session, for both parent and child: a 30 minute drive to and from tutoring for student and parent plus either an additional trip from and to the tutor and/or 1 hour of waiting for the parent. At the end of the day: 1 hour wasted for student, 2 hours wasted for parent Online tutoring also means your tutor doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to travel, which will save money for you. How? Let's say I'm a tutor, and I have to drive half an hour to and from your 2 hour tutoring session. Even if I would normally charge $40/hr to tutor students online or at my house, I'm going to have to charge you $60/hr because I'm losing an hour of potential tutoring time to travel; rather than paying me $80 for a 2 hour tutoring session, you end up paying 50% more ($120/2 hours). If I tutor online, I can charge solely for tutoring time (without having to fold in the money I'd lose from time spent traveling). With online tutoring, you only pay for the tutoring you receive. Another perk is that no need to travel means that all your study materials at your fingertips Ã¢â¬â no more forgetting things at home (not that I have extensive experience in this subject area. Nope). Finally, online tutoring lets you have more flexibility when scheduling your tutoring - you don't have to worry about when you can get a ride, or when you can fit the travel time into your busy high school schedule. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t go with online tutoring ifÃ¢â¬ ¦ You have to travel to get high-speed internet access, and a tutor will come to you/is closer by. Both parent and student have time to spare Ã¢â¬â in that case, time spent traveling may not be an issue Suburban commute by pedrik, used under CC BY 2.0. One if by land, two if by sea, three if weÃ¢â¬â¢re just calling to let you know weÃ¢â¬â¢re running late Ã¢â¬Ëcause of the after-school traffic on the highway. Technology Online video chat software and hardware have advanced substantially from just 5 years ago. Videos look sharp and are live, making online sessions equal in quality to in-person tutoring. Some presentational software even lets tutors show equations and diagrams, which in turn can make SkypeTM tutoring even more effective than in-person tutoring. Case in point: itÃ¢â¬â¢s way easier to draw perfect circles and diagrams and manipulate equations on a computer than on paper with a pencil and compass. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t go with online tutoring ifÃ¢â¬ ¦ You have ZERO access to high speed internet. If you live in a rural area or some area where the only internet you have is dial-up (cabin in the woods in the foothills of the Sierra Nevadas, for example), online tutoring will probably not work for you. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a computer and/or have never before used a webcam. Even you have the technology, but are not comfortable with it, you may want to hold off on online tutoring. Not sure if the technology is going to be a barrier? Go with online tutoring that offers a full money-back guarantee for the first session and make sure there are no hiccups. The Bottom Line There are certainly legitimate reasons to dislike online tutoring. If you... DonÃ¢â¬â¢t care about quality DonÃ¢â¬â¢t have easy access to high speed internet ArenÃ¢â¬â¢t comfortable with the technology used ...then it makes sense not to get online tutoring. Barring these exceptions, however, online tutoring is equally as effective as, if not more effective than, traditional in-person tutoring. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re particularly confident of this at PrepScholar because of the quality of our tutors. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? How much should you pay for an SAT/ACT Tutor? Use our guidelines to help you form a reasonable budget. Not sure if you should go with a tutor or just do online prep? We have the article for you. For more on how to choose the best online prep, read our concise guide. Want to get serious about improving your SAT/ACT score? Our tutoring service is designed to be the most effective in the nation. We hire the best tutors from across the country. This is then paired with our exclusiveonline drillingprogramthat gives your tutor complete insight into your progress to design the most effective sessions. Think about what improving 160 points on your SAT, or 4 points on your ACT, can do for you. Learn more about tutoring now:
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 9:24 PM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
IDEO case study - Essay Example And the project manager would ensure their concepts could be achieved within budget and timeline. Set up large Ã¢â¬Å"Tech BoxÃ¢â¬ , contain the curiosities and interesting gadgets to inspire innovator. Designers could rummage through the stuffs and play with the switch, bottom on them. This motivates their creativity of putting the old things in new use. Built the culture that Ã¢â¬Å"High performing employees were rewarded by being given more challenging projects to leadÃ¢â¬ , this way encourage them to contribute more in every project as they always have the chance of being group leader once they have high ability. Organizational culture is an essential tool for innovation in any business setting. Consequently, it is true that in order to innovate there is a need to invest in building a strong culture that gives the right atmosphere to the employees and management to get involved. Mutual helping in workplace is a crucial aspect that foresees the success of businesses that depend on creativity in executing all the underlying projects. Encouraging-business culture enables workload sharing and collaborative help coming to the fore; lending expertise, experience and perspective that improve the quality and the execution techniques of different innovation ideas. For instance, IDEO has proved to have achieved a more impressive business culture. The IDEOÃ¢â¬â¢s culture has been able to build a help-friendly environment within its premises. The firm has employed more than 300 employees al with engineering educational backgrounds including its founder. The number is sufficient in the execution process of different processes within the stipulated budgets and timeframe. Additionally, as the firm deals with technical products they have introduced employee-customer interaction meeting to ensure their customers are satisfied. Such an aspect allows for acquisition of feedback from the product user, an aspect that is crucial for innovation and product improvement
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 3:04 AM
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Islam Today - Essay Example With the destruction and chaos that came with the end of the colonial rule after World War 2, much of the Islamic world became the victim of corrupt regimes, religious extremism, and foreign intervention. As Edward Said put it: Ã¢â¬Å"In part, of course, that is because the Middle East, the Arabs, and Islam have continued to fuel enormous change, struggle, controversy, and, as I write these lines, warÃ¢â¬ . The political instability so much a part of much of the Islamic world stems from the instable atmosphere of many of these countries (especially the Arab ones) and the fact that they are home to most of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oil supply. The oil brings the interest of many Western governments to do things that, if the oil was not there, they would probably not do. To that of course must be added that most people have the negative image of Muslims as terrorists and extremists largely due to their negative depiction in the media. There is Ã¢â¬Å"a striking lack of clarity and an atmosphere of incomprehension that can only generate suspicion and fearÃ¢â¬ (Ramadan 2007, p. 23). This situation is not helped by the fact that so many scholars in the West believe that Muslims are by nature Ã¢â¬Å"radicalÃ¢â¬ and that Islam in general is incompatible with the West and/or globalization. In order combat these images and the potential conflict there is a lot people in Muslim countries could do. First and foremost Muslim governments should attempt to have their voice heard more clearly and more often in Western media. It is clear that Muslims have an image problem in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s media. There should be an organized effort to reach out to people to show them that Islam has much more to it than radicals and terrorists.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 12:29 PM
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Socio-Economic Factors Influence Health and Well-Being Essay Introduction The social determinants of wellbeing are in charge of health disparities. For decreasing wellbeing disparities and enhancing wellbeing status of individuals, it is essential to perceive principle elements which are influencing wellbeing, that is, determinants of heath. Economic components have significant part in helping better wellbeing. Individuals with low salary are more defenceless against infections and incapacities. Health social determinants comprises of different variables that focus wellbeing and health, for example, socio-economic factors, sexual orientations, societies and instruction (Dolan, et al, 2008). A few gatherings of individuals are healthier than others. There is a connection in the middle of pay and wellbeing, and also they are solid indicators of wellbeing. Individuals with low monetary status have poor training, unemployment, work shakiness awful living up to expectations conditions and lower class occupations (Pappa, et al, 2009). Discussion Socioeconomic factors are regularly measured as a mix of instruction, salary, and occupation. At the point when seen through a social class lens, benefit, power, and control are accentuated. Besides, an examination of socioeconomic as an inclination or consistent variable uncovers disparities in access to and dissemination of assets. Socioeconomic factors are significant to all domains of behavioural and sociology, including exploration, practice, training, and promotion (Dolan, et al, 2008). Low Socioeconomic status and it relates, for example, lower instruction, neediness, and weakness, eventually influence our general public all in all. Imbalances in riches dissemination, asset circulation, and personal satisfaction are expanding in the United Kingdom and all inclusive. Society advantages from an expanded concentrate on the establishments of financial disparities and endeavours toÃ decrease the profound crevices in financial status in the United Kingdom. Behavioural and other sociology experts have the apparatuses important to study and distinguish methodologies that could allay these incongruities at mutually individual as well as communal levels (Pappa, et al, 2009). Equality Act 2010 is a demonstration of the Parliament of United Kingdom which producing results from October 2010 recommends an equivalent treatment in access to business and additionally private and open administrations. The demonstration list a set of ensured attributes which are recognized as take after: age, inability, sexual orientation reassignment, marriage and common association, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or conviction, sex and sexual introduction (Daniels, 2010). With respect to these attributes the Act give a unique security every each one encircling the all procurements with general evidences about regular qualities of separation. The reason of such part and distinctive security among the secured trademark is clarified on the premise of a prior hostile to separation law which was accordingly consolidated by the Equality Act including further component of insurance. Actually, the Act is shaped by various bits of other enactment which controlled the segregation law field. Thusly, were authoritatively actives the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, the Race Relations Act 1976 and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995? The demonstration supplants additionally various Regulations, in which the one pertinent in age separation field was the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations, which produce results beginning from 2006 until the reception of Equality act (Daniels, 2010). Poverty can be characterized in an unexpected way; those of conflicting conclusions on poverty will presumably additionally have unique suppositions on the reasons for neediness and the estimation of poverty. For instance Marxists and Feminists have philosophies focused around clash. Marxists accept that there is a class battle, and that the abuse made by private enterprise makes neediness. Womens activists accept that Patriarchy fabricates in social disparities and their belief systems are exhibited by the imbalances in pay in the middle of ladies and men. There is likewise research demonstrating that there are a larger number of ladies than men in neediness, and 93% of solitary folks in destitution are ladies. However clashing contentions are held by the New Right. Their supporters incorporateÃ Margaret Thatcher, Charles Murray and David Marshland and their philosophy is focused around the individual, and not society overall. The New Right accepts that it is through the peoples lethargy that destitution is brought on (Conley Page, 2010). Feminist accept that society is organized by Patriarchy, the thought that men are the most critical individuals in the public arena, and everything in the public eye is composed to accommodate the needs of men. This perspective is upheld by the conveyance of compensations; cases of this are managerial positions in extensive organizations where ladies get paid less for the same employment (McNay, 2013). Feminist will likewise contend that the profit framework has accepted that ladies are reliant upon men and this implies the welfare state capacities to keep up patriarchy. The cycle of neediness backings the view that destitution is brought on by the social imbalances that are incorporated with the structure o f society. This perspective is that when an individual is naturally introduced to a poor family, their chances in life of assisting themselves in the public arena are fundamentally decreased. This is the methodology in which destitution is transmitted starting with one era then onto the next. Cornwall, Harrison, Whitehead, 2007 recognize that a percentage of the hindrances that are connected with the poor like underachievement at school are connected with offspring of low salary families being marked as an issue. The social just approach acknowledges this cycle of destitution and the relative meaning of neediness. Their philosophy is that those at the base of the social classes are in burdened gatherings whose destitution bringing about social avoidance. Exploration completed by Dean, 2009 found that there are fundamental gatherings in the underclass, including the elderly, resigned, solitary folks and the long haul unemployed who are compelled to depend on deficient state advantages, which are excessively low. Women in poverty additionally have lessened access to healthcare administrations and assets. Somewhat because of the toll of childbearing, ladies are excessively beset with poor health results. Poor health ladies capacities to win pay, and, in this manner, is a key variable expanding and propagating family unit neediness (McNay, 2013). Expanding wellbeing administrations to ladies could, subsequently, relieve the feminization of destitution. The education of ladies and kids, particularly young ladies, can make more prominent open doors for ladies toÃ lift themselves out of neediness and expand their social position. Nations with solid sexual orientation separation and social chains of importance breaking point ladies right to gain entrance to essential instruction. Indeed inside the family unit, young ladies instruction is frequently yielded to permit male kin to go to class. Ethnic group For some ethnic minority bunches, viewpoints, for example, unemployment, living norms and welfare are significant issues. Ethnic gatherings depend on social incorporation to be included in, for instance, instruction and job, and for a few, this is hard in the event that you cant talk or talk little of the local dialect or are ignorant, as it will be harder to end up included and accepted in the public eye (Goldthorpe, 2009). It was likewise observed that 8% of the white populace and 27% of the Pakistani and Bangladeshi populace were unemployed. Adolescent Afro-Caribbean men matured 16 to 24 were discovered to be three times more inclined to be unemployed then those the same age and white. Under half of ladies from ethnic minorities are utilized contrasted with in excess of 65% of white ladies. Issues in deficient lodging among ethnic minorities are high. With a correlation of 2% of the white populace, 30% of Pakistanis and 47% of Bangladeshis living in packed lodging as per the 1991 accord, it is plain to see why those in ethnic minorities are more inclined to experience neediness then others. In a later investigation of families in Bradford, a stunning 65% of Bangladeshis and 45% of Pakistanis existed in packed lodging (Goldthorpe, 2009). The working class In the 1980s, amid the Thatcher time, the common labourers endured tremendously. They encountered serious cut in occupations, with mines, industrial facilities, boat building manufacturing plants and steel works being shut down. This created demolition and an increment in destitution inside the class. It particularly influenced the men because of sudden vulnerability in work and perplexity (Goldthorpe, 2009). On the other hand, this monstrous cut in employments for the working people implied that such places as Sheffield were supplanted with the administration and retail segment. Anyway these men had no aptitudes to have the capacity to take part in this industry and men thought that it was tricky to manage the truth theyÃ were sometimes being supplanted by ladies as the fundamental providers. This prompted a substantial increment in unemployment and neediness. Men were hesitant to learn new aptitudes keeping in mind the end goal to take an interest in the public eye and in this way turned to addictions, for example, drink and medications, calculates that can prompt neediness. Similarly as with the ethnic minorities, the average workers receive sub societies, for example, the opposition to class subculture found by Paul Willis. Working people young men in their last year at a thorough school were mulled over in a longitudinal study that tailed them into their first years in occupation. He observed that they received the same state of mind at function as they did at school, thinking that it more essential to have a snicker and disregard the establishmentÃ¢â¬â¢s standards and values then doing work and picking up capabilities. This lead to a circle in the regular workers as they emulated the same way as their guardians had formerly (Goldthorpe, 2009). This absence of satisfactory lodging, unemployment, higher wrongdoing and absence of healthcare and abilities leads now and again to pertinent destitution in the regular workers group. The reliance on the welfare state gives no energy or consolation to go out and look for vocation. The selection of the caretaker state should avert neediness and brings individuals up over the destitution line. Anyway it can be seen to really compound the situation. Conclusion Poverty is a long way from being nullified if anything it is expanding quickly and the retreat has pushed numerous families and people into destitution. Poverty is predominantly dictated by three elements Ã¢â¬Å"access to work, and the disappointment of government strategies to manage them. Access to work is dictated by class, sexual orientation and race. On the off chance that unemployed, individuals landing a position is not so much the solution for their issues in the event that they are going to be getting a low wage i.e. solitary folks and low salary families with youngsters. Standardized savings have neglected to haul individuals out of destitution, regularly abandoning them to adapt on least salaries. References Conley, H., Page, M. (2010). The gender equality duty in local government: The prospects for integration. Industrial Law Journal, 39(3), 321-325. Cornwall, A., Harrison, E., Whitehead, A. (2007). Gender myths and feminist fables: the struggle for interpretive power in gender and development.Development and Change, 38(1), 1-20. Daniels, K. (2012). Equality Act 2010. Dean, H. (2009). Critiquing capabilities: the distractions of a beguiling concept.Critical Social Policy, 29(2), 261-278. Dolan, P., Peasgood, T., White, M. (2008). Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. Journal of economic psychology, 29(1), 94-122. Goldthorpe, J. H. (2009). Analysing social inequality: a critique of two recent contributions from economics and epidemiology. European Sociological Review, jcp046. McNay, L. (2013). Gender and agency: Reconfiguring the subject in feminist and social theory. John Wiley Sons. Pappa, E., Kontodimopoulos, N., Papadopoulos, A. A., Niakas, D. (2009). Assessing the socio-economic and demographic impact on health-related quality of life: evidence from Greece. International journal of public health,54(4), 241-249.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 1:00 AM
Thursday, November 14, 2019
100 Years of Changes Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This century has been one of many changes and incredible inventions. If a person was to think about it, this century has taken us from horseback to fuel-injected horsepower, from gaslights to sodium-vapor streetlights, from crystal radios to digital television, from compasses to GPS navigation systems, from wood burning stoves to microwave ovens, from Victrolas to DVD players and of course from hot air balloons to jet propulsion aircraft. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the past 100 years, we have made much advancement in all areas of society. The way people live has changed drastically just in the past century. Technology in particular has advanced more in these last 100 years then all previous time combined. For example, because of the research done by many innovative and dedicated individuals such as the Wright Brothers who were the first to sustain flight in a powered airplane, we are able to fly all over the world in a matter of hours in jet propelled pressurized aircraft. One hundred years ago, the thought of man flying in a machine was insane. The Wright Brothers helped to realize the dream of manned flight. Many years later, after the idea of manned flight becoming a reality, space exploration was the next step. In 1969, many people did not believe what happened. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon. They posted an American flag, explored, collected space rocks and came back home. Many Americans did not be lieve that the technology existed to go that far. Today, several missions a year are launched using manned space shuttles that can be flown back to earth like gliders and reused on future space missions. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another example of the change in our technology over the last century is the change in the computer. In 1946, the first electronic computer called the ENIAC took up the space of a large room. Instead of using transistors and IC chips, the ENIAC used vacuum tubes. Compared to many computers now, the ENIAC is about as powerful as a small calculator. That may not be much, but it is a milestone because there would not be computers today if it were not for the ENIAC. As the years passed, the computer became smaller and more powerful. Today, more than half of the American population has a computer in their home. The personal computers today are thousands of times more powerful than the most powerful computers fifty years ago.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 1:31 PM
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Port Chicago Disaster On the 24 of July 1944, a memorandum was written from Captain W. S. Parsons, USN to Rear Admiral W. R. Purnell, IJSN. It was a report on the most destructive explosion on United States soil at that time. It was known as the Port Chicago Explosion. Captain Parsons worked in the Bureau of Ordnance as their Liaison Officer. So he was a prime candidate for the Job. Rear Admiral Purnell was the head of the Military Policy Committee. This memorandum was not intended to incarcerate people, determine its cause, nor report defects in the design of munitions depots.Its sole urpose was to collect data from the damage done and to find the exact time when the explosion happened. Captain Parsons determined the exact time based on seismic activity. He determined the time of detonation occurred at approximately between 2218-2244 on the 17 of July, 1944. It was found that approximately 2000 tons of high explosion were present on the dock at the time of the explosion. He also determined that light damage extended approximately 1500 yards from the explosion. This was minor damage but significant none the less.From ground zero and out to approximately 1000 feet it was determined that there was total destruction. However, at 1000 feet there were 3 civilians that remained alive; these were the closest survivors to the blast. This horrible disaster could have been prevented, only if certain factors were addressed accordingly. Within the confines of the munitions depot at port Chicago, there was racism. Akers states: The general classification test employed at this time placed the black ratings at Port Chicago Ã¢â¬Ëin the lowest twelfth of the Navy.According to their superiors, these men were unreliable, emotional, lacked capacity to understand or remember orders or instructions, were particularly susceptible to ass psychology and moods, lacked mechanical aptitude, were suspicious of strange officers, disliked receiving orders of any kind, particularly from white officers or petty officers, and were inclined to look for and make an issue of discrimination. For the most part, they were quite young and of limited education. 1 Black men, no matter what they scored on their classification test were put into these laborious work parties.If they scored high enough and there were empty billets, they would be transferred to another duty station. Therefore, there was a lack of good leaders to be had. This is a prime example of discrimination. Another example of racism at this munitions depot is that: Negroes in the Navvy don't mind loading ammunition. They Just want to know why they are the only ones doing the loading! They want to know why they are segregated; why they don't get promoted. 2 This stated that the racism was severe and the moral of the black sailors was very low.When morale was low, they started to ask question and the quality of work that and more prone to accidents. In addition, white officers were put in charge of these loadi ng parties and the black sailors did not like them. On top of that, the commanding officer, Captain Kinne, demanded a quota often tons per hatch per hour. These white officers deemed this goal, of the commanding officer, too high. But they had to fulfill it nonetheless or else their Jobs were on the line. Allen stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ officers sometimes raced working divisions against each other to speed up loading. 3 This caused workers to work at an unsafe speed and often times a shell would drop to the deck. Allen also stated: As Carr [the wench maintenance personnel] looked on, one man lost his grip on a shell; it dropped two feet and hit the deck with a thud. This showed that the rate at which they loaded ammunition onto the ships was unsafe. It made the possibility for a disaster very high. Still the Captain Kinne, the white officers had quotas to fill so they ignored these ominous signs and kept on pushing. Only if they could have slowed down the load rate, this disaster could have potentially been avoided.Another factor that could have prevented this disaster would be training. According to Julius J. Allen in his court martial trial he stated, Ã¢â¬Å"There was no training in ammunition handling. Ã¢â¬Å"5 These black Junior sailors were not trained to handle igh explosives, at the same time, the white officers were inadequately trained to supervise the loading process of high explosives. According to Freddie Meeks: When those bombs, slathered in grease, bounced down the plank, theyd bang into other bombs and everyone would pray to Almighty God. They made terrible sound.Sometimes, you thought they would explode. You'd almost have a heart attack to hear those bombs hitting togetherÃ¢â¬ ¦ I'd ask the lieutenant about it and he'd say don't worry. 6 The black sailors were weary of working with these explosives but were told by fficers that the larger munitions were not active and could not explode and that they would be armed with their fuses upon arrival at the combat theater. Because of the inadequate training of the white officers, they disillusioned the black sailors. The black sailors would believe them because of their lack of training with explosives as well.Therefore, this made for carelessness in the handling of the high explosives because all personnel apart of the loading parties did not know that the shells had the potential to explode because the training was negligent. Another aspect is the equipment used for handling of the high explosives. Handling of these larger explosives such as bombs and shells involved breaking individual munitions out with levers and crowbars from boxcars. The shells were packed in tightly with packing material, and they were heavy cylindrical shapes.The black sailors would roll them along the wooden pier, packing them into nets, lifting them with a winch and boom, lowering the bundle into the hold, and then dropping the individual explosives a short distance by hand into place. This series of ac tions was rough enough that naval shells were sometimes damaged and began leaking identification dye from their ballistic caps. This should have been a major warning that an explosion was explosives. Therefore, the explosives were more prone to damage because of the kind of crude equipment they were using.In addition, the powered winches used on cargo ships were used to speed up the handling of heavy loads. One winch was operated at each of the ship's five cargo holds. During loading operations, the winches were worked hard, requiring steady maintenance in order to remain operable. Winch brakes, a safety feature provided for stopping the load from falling if the winch's main power was lost, were not often used by a skilled winch operator s the load could be more quickly maneuvered using various power settings than by application of the brakes.Disused brakes sometimes seized up and stopped working. Additionally, the winches on the SS E. A. Bryan were steam-powered and showed signs of wear, even though the ship was only five months old. Equipment could have been a factor, but also the lack personal protective equipment was another factor. In many cases there was no personal protective equipment provided by the munitions depot. In an interview with Carl Tuggle, he stated that: If you wanted to wear gloves, you purchased them. That was the only way you had gloves o wear and to use while you were working.At night we were provided clothing to keep us from the elements on the dock at night because it was cold, but otherwise we supplied everything else ourselves. 7 Since the black sailors often were not promoted they remained stagnant with the position of Junior sailor. Therefore, they would not make a lot of money and not have money to buy proper personal protective equipment. This made the work parties more prone to accidents. It was so dangerous that even Commander Paul B. Cronk, head of a Coast Guard explosives-loading detail tasked with supervision of the orking dock, warned the Navvy that conditions were unsafe and ripe for disaster.The Navvy refused to change its procedures and Cronk withdrew the detail. The Navvy still put a blind eye to the munitions depot at Port Chicago therefore the disaster was waiting to happen. This may have been the most destructive explosion, but it was almost expected as Captain Parsons reported, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Port Chicago was designed for large explosions. Ã¢â¬Å"8 He stated that the munitions depot designed at Port Chicago was designed for large explosions and because of the design; there was a very minimal loss of life outside of the munitions depot.Nonetheless, it was eventually determined that 320 of the men on duty at the pier died instantly, and 390 civilians and military personnel were injured, many seriously. Surprisingly, this was a major loss for the black sailor community in which, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ roughly 15 percent of all the black casualties in the US Navvy during the entire war. Ã¢â¬Å"9 Shortly after the disaster, Port Chicago assigned white sailors to work alongside black sailors loading ammunition. This was the first step towards desegregation. To fix the lack of training, the Navvy instituted new training and safety procedures for the handling of high explosives.If and only if the Navvy listened to the Coast Guard Explosives-Loading detail supervising the loading of the explosives, the Port Chicago explosion would have never happened and this memorandum would have never been written. 1. Regina T. Akers, Ã¢â¬Å"The Port Chicago Mutiny, 1944,Ã¢â¬ in Naval Mutinies of the Twentieth Century: An International Perspective, ed. Christopher M. Bell and Bruce A. Elleman (London: Frank Cass, 2003), 200. 2. Robert L. Allen, Ã¢â¬Å"Final Outcome? Fifty Years after the Port Chicago Mutiny,Ã¢â¬ American Visions 9 (1994).http:// search. ebscohost. com.http://search. ebscohost. comhttp://montfordpointmarinesandhonor.blogspot.com/2013/09/http://search.epnet.com/Login.aspx?lp=login .asp&ref=https%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Egoogle%2Ecom%2Eua%2F&authtype=ip,uidhttps://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88%E3%82%B7%E3%82%AB%E3%82%B4%E3%81%AE%E6%83%A8%E4%BA%8B
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 2:02 AM
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The Coca-Cola Company was established in 1886 in the United States. Today, the Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products are available in over 200 different countries. Each country contains its own demographics and other factors that influence the marketing planning and promotions for the Coca-Cola product lines. These factors vary by location and can include culture, customs, and even legal matters. The Coca-Cola Company has been able to successfully examine these factors and create marketing campaigns that have allowed the company to grow in leaps and bounds over the past 100 years. Global economic interdependence Global economic interdependence is when different economies rely upon one another and can include goods and service exchanges. Coca-Cola is one of the most famous soft drink brands in the world because they have successfully marketed their products across the globe. These foreign economies rely upon Coca-Cola products to stock their shelves to meet the consumers demand. With such a strong demand, countries would want the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product in local stores to increase sales and thus taxes collected. In order to get products to foreign markets, Coca-Cola is faced with trade restrictions and agreements. Restrictions can include tariffs which impose taxes on imported goods or quotas that limit the amount of certain product that is brought into the country (Kotler, Keller, 2012). These restrictions can lead to questions as to whether entering that foreign market is profitable. A high tariff could cut into profits while other trade restrictions may not allow a product to enter the market at all. A stiff market to enter may require a very detailed and successful marketing plan in order to reach the most potential consumers. A failed plan could result in the company paying more for the product to enter that market rather than the amount of money being made. Demographics and infrastructure Demographics must be examined prior to entering a foreign market. Household income, population, and age can all play a factor in a marketing plan. PoorÃ countries such as those in Africa may not be able to afford to purchase a product and therefore, would not be included in a marketing plan for a high priced item. Also, if there is a limited amount of infrastructure the product may not be able to be transported. Countries that lack infrastructure such as paved roads or electricity would become difficult markets for Coca-Cola to enter. Without roads or railroads, Coca-Cola would not be able to deliver their product to the consumers. Electricity is typically needed in order to keep the beverage chilled and to record sales transactions. A country lacking infrastructure will have a difficult time getting popular goods to their consumers. Cultural differences Cultural differences play a role in the marketing process. Different cultures will have different ideals and may even use products for different reasons. What may be acceptable in the American market may be a sign of disrespect in another. Knowledge of cultural differences can make or break a marketing campaign and also the entire company. For example, the Japanese commercials tend to have more animation and songs in the commercial. Also, the culture is also more advanced in technology so vending machines are more advanced in Japan than the ones we see here in America. Finally, different cultures may see certain products or ingredients as unhealthy. What may be delicious to consumers in China may be horrid to the taste buds of those in America. Social responsibility and ethics versus legal obligations Social responsibility and ethics are values that should be followed but not necessarily obligated to do so. On the other hand, legal obligations force a company to perform certain actions. For example, Coca-Cola is not legally obligated to set a certain price on their product. However, they are legally obligated to place nutritional and ingredient information on the product. As previously mentioned, different cultures play a role in marketing. What one culture may see as a social responsibility may be a legal obligation in another. As many know, Coca-Cola once contained the drug cocaine. Legally, cocaine is outlawed in the United States but may not be in other countries. What some may not know is that Coca-Cola still contains an extract from the coca leaves that is not classified as illegal (New York Times, 2013). In some cultures, it may be unethical to sell a product that has anyÃ derivatives from any mind altering plants. Political systems and the influence of international relations Political systems can decide whether to allow a product to enter their market or impose extreme conditions that must be met. In addition, international relations can play a part as to where a product goes. Currently, the United States has a trade restriction with Iran that limits what can be exchanged between the two countries. Iran, once considered an ally, is now an evil and thus trade restrictions are in place. Coca-Cola may find it difficult to get their product into this market through a legit trade agreement. If Coca-Cola was faced with the fact that nobody would be allowed to import their product, they would be able to develop a marketing plan for domestic use that would portray that they are the only country who gets to receive the product. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 prohibits bribes being paid to foreign officials to assist in obtaining or keeping business (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, n.d.). This Act would prohibit Coca-Cola from bribing an Iranian official to allow them to export their product to the country. Because of this Act, large corporations can no longer pay foreign officials to keep their products in stores of countries that have banned them either by local or international law. These different laws and stipulations create barriers for a product to be introduced into foreign and domestic markets. Technology Advancements in technology have made marketing both easier and more difficult at the same time. Social media sites such as YouTube now promote products before the user can watch the video they intended to view. As technology advances, previous innovations become cheaper and open the doors for new consumers to obtain these products. As the amount of people who are able to access the internet increases, so does the amount of people that can view advertisements. One of the newest fads for technology is making more products Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ . Environmental friendly products are now the big rage and consumers will pay more for a product if it is deemed Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ . Advances in technology will eventually lead to more products being green and thusÃ creating a decline in the demand. Conclusion The Coca-Cola Company was established in 1886 in the United States. Today, the Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products are available in over 200 different countries. Each country contains its own demographics and other factors that influence the marketing planning and promotions for the Coca-Cola product lines. Factors such as political influences, technology, and cultural differences all play a part on marketing. Differences in these factors can determine whether a product should be entered into the market. It is the responsibility of the manufacture, such as Coca-Cola, to perform their due diligence and evaluate its findings. References New York Times. (2013). How Coca-Cola Obtains Its Coca. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1988/07/01/business/how-coca-cola-obtains-its-coca.html U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (n.d.). Spotlight on Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved from http://www.sec.gov/spotlight/fcpa.shtml
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 8:00 PM
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Honecker and the Belated Reforms Introduction The formation and collapse of the German Democratic Republic is a significant chapter in the history of Western Europe and the world at large. Germany was the principal aggressor in World Wars I and II, and its unification and reintegration formed part of the major activities in the wars. The integration of West and East Germany signified the end of the Cold War. During the Cold War, Germany was split into different zones so as to weaken its powers that came by virtue of unity (Childs, 90). Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Honecker and the Belated Reforms specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The developments during the Cold War era were marked by several events and different actors. The activities and policies of Honecker and Gorbachev have been argued to have had a significant contribution to the fall of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Some people argue that the policies of Honecker had much significa nce to the collapse of the GDR. On the other hand, other people cite the policies of Gorbachev as the chief contributors (Thomas, 382). Thus, this essay will focus on the fall of the GDR during the Cold War period. It will discuss the contribution of Honecker, as well as those of Mikhail Gorbachev in the collapse of the GDR. The paper will establish the main forces between the policies of the two leaders and identify the force with significant contribution to the GDR collapse (Opp, Voss and Gern, 29). Scope of the essay The essay will concentrate on the main factors that led to the collapse of the GDR. The main questions that will be explored in the essay include: was the downfall of the GDR a foreseen gesture or did it come as a surprise? The other question is: which events led to the collapse of the GDR? The last question is: whose policies and activities are resulted in the collapse of the GDR? The Berlin wall and its significance to the GDR The Berlin wall was built as a preven tative measure to the conflicts that were prevailing in Europe at that time. It subdivided Germany into two countries: East German and West German. Each of these countries pursued policies basing on different philosophies. East Germany pursued the socialist philosophy. The East Germany was influenced and supported by the Soviet Union in establishing a socialist government. On the other hand, Western powers supported West Germany in establishing a democratic government. This happened immediately after the end of the Second World War. These two Germany states denoted the opposing ideologies that marked the beginning of the Cold War. These opposing ideologies were capitalism and communism. West Germany was able to attain development achievements that were attributed to capitalism as a political ideology. People of East Germany regarded their counterparts from West Germany as considerably free and developed (Kitchen and Kitchen, 352).Advertising Looking for essay on history? L et's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Honecker administration and the collapse of the Berlin wall The Berlin wall was constructed in 1961 to bar people of Eastern German from escaping to West Germany. The regime of Honecker continued to commit itself to socialism, which was the soviet style of administration. The part under the HoneckerÃ¢â¬â¢s administration continued with the execution of tough measures against those perceived to be Ã¢â¬Å"rebelsÃ¢â¬ . East Germany continued to face tough economic times characterized by the economic structures that were growing weaker day by day. The central government became incapacitated and could not discharge its duties efficiently. This was eminent in the year 1977 when the country faced what is referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"Coffee CrisisÃ¢â¬ . This, together with a couple of many other political problems, culminated into a revolt or opposition to the government by the citizenry (Baker, 24 ). Leading Events to the collapse of GDR In the late 1980s, there were growing problems in the economy coupled by flaws and a weakening Soviet system. These factors were hindrances to the government of the Soviet Union in respect to spreading its tentacles to the neighbouring countries. In the year 1986, the then leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev devised two crucial reform movements. One of them was referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"GlasnostÃ¢â¬ meaning openness. The other one was known as Ã¢â¬Å"PerestroikaÃ¢â¬ . The first multiparty election was held in the year 1989. Gorbachev urged East European countries that were practicing communism to embrace the reform movements he had established. The Eastern European countries were called upon by Gorbachev to raise the standards of their economies through interactions. The call for change by Gorbachev was opposed by hard-lined communists in Eastern Europe (Fleron, Hoffmann and Laird, 649). The developments in Eastern Europe had larg e impacts on the economy of East Germany. These events culminated into a financial crisis in the country. This forced the government of East Germany to squeeze finances out of the population. This was done through the imposition of rationing and other austerity measures to the citizens. The citizens were angered by these measurers that were considered to be exploitative. They launched demonstrations across the country calling for reforms. The citizens called for the election of a democratic government that would guarantee them the freedom. These demands were ignored by Honecker who was the leader of the government of East Germany. The government of East Germany continued to be insensitive to the citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ demands. Moreover, the government increased its hostility towards the populace. The pressure continued to pile up on the government. The government was forced to heed to the mounting pressure on 9th of November, 1989. The refugees were allowed to exit East Germany via the crossing points that were on the Berlin wall. This resulted in the collapse of the wall (Plock, 87).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Honecker and the Belated Reforms specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More GorbachevÃ¢â¬â¢s Influence Prior to the 1980s, the foreign policy of the Soviet Union was informed by the fear it had over Germany. The country feared that an independent Germany would dominate it. This is what informed the policies of leaders who came to power in the Soviet Union before Mikhail Gorbachev. The leaders stuck to the traditional concept that was held by Moscow. Gorbachev proposed changes that were aimed at untangling the country from the traditional concept of governance that was held by all his predecessors. The proposals for change made by Gorbachev resulted to the change of the political climate within the East Bloc. The reform-minded communists were receptive to the changes and reforms that were prop osed by Gorbachev in the change policies which he had crafted (Kitson, 8-10). The proposed changes were also critical as they aided in unnerving the rigid communists who strongly believed in MoscowÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy. The adoption of Ã¢â¬Å"Sinatra DoctrineÃ¢â¬ was among the supportive activities to the change policies of Gorbachev. Sinatra is an attitude of no interference to the internal affairs of the satellite states of Russia. The new reforms by Gorbachev reduced the interference of Russia in East Germany. The citizens of East Germany began to get a room to pressure the government for reforms. Therefore, the signs for political changes were in the offing. If Gorbachev had chosen to go as per the former leaders of the Soviet Union, a room for political changes in East Germany would not have been easily created. Russia would have continued to strengthen its policies and monitoring of the satellite states (Hyde-Price, 145). Gorbachev allowed satellite states to pursue their o wn paths of socialism. In fact, he pushed for this against the will of the hard-liner socialists. He ended up declaring that the satellite states were free to disintegrate and pursue their own matters. This was a significant blow to the staunchest communists such as Egon Honecker who was the then leader of East Germany. It became clear to such leaders that change was imminent in the Soviet Union bloc. The declaration accelerated the infiltration of news from West to East Germany. The East Germans got information about the wellbeing of the people in West Germany. Therefore, most of them were motivated to mount pressure by making spirited attempts to cross over the Berlin wall to join their counterparts in West Germany. The events taking place in Russia were tracked by television stations in West Germany. These events were leaked to the East Germans through the guards who were manning the Berlin wall. A bigger percentage of the population in West Germany managed to track the develop ments taking place in the Soviet Union (Gert-Joachim, 35).Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, most people see the actions and policies of Gorbachev as the main motivating factors towards the demise of East Germany. However, the true motives, intensions and implications of the policies of Gorbachev are still subject to debate. A number of scholars have tried to link the policies of Gorbachev to the actions that the Soviet undertook to disintegrate from the political ideology that marked the Cold War. They try to justify that the policy was not related to the participation of Russia in the politics of Western Europe and the world at large. The collapse of East Germany could have come as a result of the indirect effects of the policies that were proposed by Gorbachev. Others argue that the policies of Gorbachev just came at the right time for the political situation in East Germany. Germany had an awful rigid eco-political atmosphere that required an invigorating factor to spark efforts or demand for change. However, it was not expected that the actions of Gorbache v could spark such a strong mass movement leading to the collapse of the Berlin wall. The collapse of the Berlin wall marked the end of a split Germany. This led to the unification of the two states to form a united Germany (Engel, 71-76). Mikhail Gorbachev Ã¢â¬â was he a real contributor to the collapse of the Germany Democratic Republic The collapse of the GDR is often termed as an unanticipated event in the history of Western Europe. It generated a lot of questions, one of them being the reason as to why the republic was formed in the first place. This question is what could lead to the understanding of the basis on which the republic existed and forces behind its collapse. It is presumed by some historians that the collapse of the GDR was an extraordinarily massive event that could not be likened to actions of a single person. For one to establish the main reasons for the collapse of East Germany with certainty, he or she must be critical in assessing the events that happened before the collapse. Of course, the issue of GorbachevÃ¢â¬â¢s participation or role in the event cannot be ignored. The collapse of East Germany marked the collapse of the communistic rule in East Germany. It was also a leading force behind the collapse of communism in the entire Europe. It was a pointer to the ending of communism (Nuechterlein, 215-220). One must also assess the genesis of the internal wrangles in the GRD that were boosted by other external factors leading to the massive action and the collapse of the GDR. The problems in the GDR emanated from economic forces and governance, which were putting a lot of burden on the citizens of the republic. External developments like the political developments in the USSR only impacted on the forces or wrangles that prevailed within East Germany (White, Batt and Lewis, 29). However, how could the events taking place in the USSR fail to be of significance to Eastern Germany? This is the question that many people ask by arguing that political developments in the Soviet Union would have a direct effect on the existence of the GDR. This is because the USSR was the main architect in the establishment of the GDR. Therefore, any political developments in the Soviet Union would impact on the GDR. It is unrealistic for any person to try to dismiss the fact that the ascendance of Gorbachev to power signified a change of political events in East Germany. The most significant contribution of Gorbachev to the collapse of East Germany came from the policies he invented. The policies were associated with revolutionary forces. Glasnost and Perestroika policies released these forces to the political climate of Eastern Europe. These philosophies negated most of the principles of communism that had been held up by USSR and her satellites states. The internal order that had been established through the practice of communism in East Germany was shaken due to the pressures that resulted from the policies of Gorbachev. Glasn ost encouraged people to think over issues, and this resulted to the desire for change. These aspects acted as triggering factors for a political discourse in the GDR (Gedmin, 56-60). The citizens of the GDR had gotten used to obeying the Soviet in an unequivocal manner. Therefore, with the change brought about by the Gorbachev policies, the citizens began demanding similar changes in East Germany. They wanted reforms that would lead them to freedom. The Soviet Union conducted its first ever election on 26th of March the year 1989. It was evident that the satellite states were going to follow similar steps. The political reforms of Gorbachev in the Soviet Union resulted to the doubt by the East Germany citizens. They doubted the level of commitment of the Soviet Union to guaranteeing the existence of the GDR. Thus, the USSR became a source of hope for the people of East Germany where Mikhail Gorbachev becoming their icon of change (Glaessner, 136). The presence of Gorbachev led to t he decline of support for Honecker who was the leader of East Germany. The decline of support for the East Germany leader weakened his regime. Protest had been earlier witnessed in the Eastern European. However, the collapse of the GDR can be strongly linked to the position and policies of Gorbachev that transformed the whole of Eastern Europe. The policies of Gorbachev brought about the reform spirit. However, this was devoid of many other external events that were taking place in Eastern Europe. The external events included opposition movements, which failed in fostering the real spirit of change among the citizenry (Glaessner, 140). Counter argument to Gorbachev Contribution In the same breadth, some people argue that the spirit of change in Gorbachev policies was extrapolated as it was not the main intention of Gorbachev. It is argued that Gorbachev aimed at healing communism, as opposed to eliminating communism as was interpreted by many people. There were many problems that were facing the communistic regime of the Soviet Union. Therefore, Gorbachev was seeking to devise solutions through the formulation of policies that would help in improving the communistic administration. These changes led to the opening up of the communist societies. However, reformers did not get satisfaction thereby pushing for a further course that resulted in the collapse of the GDR. At this level, it was not easy to continue thriving in communism, and if so, it meant that the only option could have been the use of coercion. Gorbachev could not resort to this as it could have watered down all the reforms that had been achieved through his change policies (Lisiak, 57). The economic policies of the Soviet Union also led to the collapse of East Germany. The Soviet Union had a weak economy at that point in time. The weak economy could not support the maintenance of its satellite states and the Cold War. There were serious cutbacks in the substantial expenditures such as military and defence, which were critical in maintaining the political power. The expenditure in the leading departments had become unsustainable. This left Gorbachev with no other option, but the need to reduce the financial burden. This is what informed the change policies. This was followed by the collapse of communism and the activation of the Ã¢â¬Å"Sinatra DoctrineÃ¢â¬ . This called for the withdrawal of the Soviet Union from controlling Eastern Europe. This is how the GRD lost its military might. Political support became deficient, and the government would no longer hold up control of citizens. From these developments, Gorbachev found himself in a tight situation that pushed him to do what he did. He did not develop policies with the aim of creating a strong base of reforms that would free the GDR. Indeed, the GDR had been enjoying the support of the Soviet Union, and this had killed the possibility of opposition (Manghani, 138 Ã¢â¬â141). There was strong support from the gover nment. However, Gorbachev made a decision of moving away from supporting East Germany. This paved way to the flourishing of economic and legitimacy problems. Therefore, opposition rose beyond the level at which it could be contained by the government of East Germany. The Soviet leaders further made pronouncements of totally pulling out their support. This facilitated the collapse of the satellite states. Therefore, the massive opposition received a boost from the actions of Gorbachev (Gorbachev, 250). Other political Developments and their significance to the reunification of Germany As the influence of Gorbachev on the collapse of the GDR is analysed, it is necessary to look into the relative importance of the external factors. These factors are deemed to have integrated with the influence of Gorbachev to compound problems to East Germany. Such factors include the improvement of the relations between the two sections of German with the Western powers. The west played a part in th e collapse of East Germany. There were allegations of spread of propaganda by allies from Western Europe. Also, the development of Western Europe was an enticing factor to the movement in the East Germany. The West provided credit to the East, and this ended up worsening the economic situation in the East. The West helped in improving relations between the GDR and GFR. There was a reduction in the hostility that characterized the relations among the two republics. This paved way for the two parts of Germany to reunite. However, the West did not apply a lot of pressure on the East as some political analysts argue (Ruth, 1-10). The issue of reunification of Germany was well documented in the political priorities of West Germany. Therefore, it was just a matter of time before the East could be fully compelled to join the West. The culminating events in Europe also pointed to the fact that the Cold War was approaching an end. This would not have happened with a division still existing between Germany. The essence of having a unified Europe was becoming a key priority among European powers. The only thing that was holding a divided Europe was the divided ideologies between the United States and the Soviet Union. Therefore, the moves of Gorbachev only propelled what had been identified by the people of Europe as the factor for change. It is the people of the GRD who translated the views to action by indulging in some activities. The changes in Poland and Hungary relayed a warning to the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union became aware that such a change could not be easily tamed through force (Cross, 3). The citizens of East Germany had found a path to get into West Germany and learn of the developments on the other side. They went through Hungary to Austria. From Austria, they got transportation services to West Germany and other Western Europe Countries. These people were escaping from the oppressive socialist regime in East Germany. Many other people managed to esc ape the country via Czechoslovakia. The remaining population was unusually active in conducting demonstrations against the regime. The government of East Germany had to act quickly to curtail the situation. Otherwise, it risked losing its control and popularity over the population. The government of East Germany had to resort to a desperate action: opening up the travelling to West Germany. The announcement of the authorization of travel to West Germany resulted to a vast population escaping to West Germany (Cross, 5). Thousands of East Germans flocked the wall as they sought to cross to West Germany. The guards who were manning the Berlin wall could not contain or control the masses. The population from the West met the population from the East as they exchanged pleasantries. It was evident that the Germans were happy to be reunited once again. This development was the greatest culminating event that resulted to the abolition of the Berlin wall. The population was reunified leadi ng to the reunification of the two countries. This event sealed the fate of the dual existence of Germany (Ruth, 1-10). When the GBR was totally immersed into changes that were taking place in Eastern Europe, communism had lost significance. It was no longer attractive to even the people who were behind it in the first place. Gorbachev policies were supported by West Germany. If West Germany would not have collaborated with East Germany, then the effect of the policies could not have gone to that extend. Therefore, it can be said that Gorbachev alone did not cause the collapse of the Soviet Union. His policies set a track for the collapse. It was the backing of the policies by external forces that made them significant to the collapse of GDR. Thus, Gorbachev was not exclusively responsible for the collapse of GDR. He is a collective participant in the development of this event (Manghani, 138-140). Strong presence and contribution of Honecker to GBR Collapse The failures of the gove rnment of East Germany under Honecker paved way for radical developments of the revolution. If Honecker had responded appropriately to the crisis by stiffening his governance, then maybe the events would not have turned out the way it did. Honecker needed to respond positively to the demands of the population. However, his leadership was stubborn. He chose to stick to the socialistic tendencies that were attributed to dictatorship. This fuelled the population in their quest for reforms. The actions of SED were provoking to the population as they led to reduction of the tolerance levels among citizens. On May seventh, the year 1989, the election results were nullified by the SED. This increased anger amongst the population thereby facilitating the pace at which they were resenting to the actions of the government. This resulted to the increase in the number and magnitude of demonstrations. This led to the weakening and collapse of the Government. Therefore, when compared to the con tributions of Gorbachev, the SED had a direct impact to the collapse of the Berlin wall. The policies of Gorbachev had an indirect effect on the course of activities in East Europe. Therefore, SED was the most direct contributor to the reuniting of the two sides of Germany (Pond, 35-66). Conclusion From the discussion and analysis in this paper, one factor cannot be proclaimed exclusively as the major cause of the collapse of the GDR. The collapse of the GDR can be linked to many events that occurred before this occasion. Both Mikhail Gorbachev and Honecker necessitated the collapse of the GDR. Honecker had direct contributions to the collapse of the East Germany. As a leader of the SED party, he made a number of decisions that triggered the opposition and demonstration against the government. Honecker was non responsive to the demands of the citizenry. He also strengthened the socialist policies in the country and against the will of the citizens. Furthermore, Honecker refused to embrace the changes that were proposed by Gorbachev. These actions filled the citizens with anger and agitation to push for changes. His actions resulted in a series of demonstrations that eventually culminated in the removal of the Berlin wall. On the other hand, the reform policies of Gorbachev are argued to have been a force in the reunification of Germany. The two main change policies that were proposed by Gorbachev had a sizeable impact on the disintegration of communism in East Europe. They sparked many other developments including the revolt against Honecker. Gorbachev and his policies had immense impacts to the collapse of the GDR. Baker, Barrie. Theatre Censorship in Honeckers Germany: From Volker Braun to Samuel Beckett. Oxford: P. Lang, 2007. Print. Childs, David. The Falssl of the Gdr: Germanys Road to Unity. Harlow: Longman, 2001. Print. Cross, Sharyl. The New Chapter in United States-Russian Relations: Opportunities and Challenges. Westport, Conn. u.a: Praeger, 1994. Print. Engel, Jeffrey A. Fall of the Berlin Wall: The Revolutionary Legacy of 1989. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print. Fleron, Frederic J, E.P. Hoffmann, and R.F. Laird. Contemporary Issues in Soviet Foreign Policy: From Brezhnev to Gorbachev. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers, 2009. Print. Gedmin, J. (1992). The hidden hand: Gorbachev and the collapse of East Germany. Washington, D.C: AEI Press. Glaessner, Gert-Joachim. German Democracy: From Post-World War Ii to the Present Day. Oxford: Berg, 2005. Print. Glaessner, Gert-Joachim. The Unification Process in Germany, From Dictatorship to Democracy. London, 1992 Gorbachev, Mikhail S. Mikhail Gorbachev: Prophet of Change: from the Cold War to a Sustainable World. Forest Row: Clairview, 2011. Print. Hyde-Price, Adrian G. V. The International Politics of East Central Europe. Manchester [u.a.: Manchester Univ. Press, 1996. Print. Kitchen, Martin, and M. Kitchen. A History of Modern Germany: 1800 to the Present. Chich ester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print. Kitson, Alison. Germany 1858-1990: Hope, Terror and Revival. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Print. Lisiak, Agata A. Urban Cultures in (post)colonial Central Europe. West Lafayette, Ind: Purdue University Press, 2011. Print. Manghani, Sunil. Image Critique the fall of the Berlin Wall. Bristol: Intellect, 2008. Print. Nuechterlein, Donald E. A Cold War Odyssey. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997. Print. Opp, Karl-Dieter, P. Voss, and C. Gern. Origins of a Spontaneous Revolution: East Germany, 1989. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Press, 1995. Print. Plock, Ernest D. East German West German Relations and the fall of the Gdr. Boulder, Colo. [u.a.: Westview Press, 1993. Print. Pond, Elizabeth. Ã¢â¬ËA Wall Destroyed: The Dynamics of German Unification in the GDRÃ¢â¬â¢, International Security, 15, 2, (1999): 35 Ã¢â¬â 66. Print. Ruth, Dockrill Saki. The End of the Cold War Era. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2010. Pri nt. Thomas, A. Baylis. Explaining the GDRs economic strategy. International Organization, 40, (1986): 381-420. Print. White, Stephen, J. Batt, and P.G. Lewis. Developments in Central and East European Politics 4. Durham: Duke University Press, 2007. Print.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 1:58 PM
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Conversation Using Reported Speech Lesson Plans Reported speech is also known as indirect speech and is commonly used in spoken conversations to report what others have said. A keen grasp of correct tense usage, as well as the ability to correctly shift pronouns and time expressions, is essential when usingÃ reported speech. The use of reported speech is especially important at higher English levels. StudentsÃ are fine-tuning their communication skills to include expressing the ideas of others, as well as their own opinions. Students usually need to focus not only on the grammar involved but also on production skills. Reported speech includes some rather tricky transformations that need to be practiced repeatedly before students feel comfortable using reported speech in everyday conversations. Finally, make sure to point out that reported speech is generally used with the verbs say and tell in the past.Ã Hell help him with the homework. - She told me he would help me with my homework.Ã However, if the reporting verb is conjugated in the present tense, no reported speech changes are necessary. Im going to Seattle next week. - Peter says hes going to Seattle next week.Ã Lesson Outline Aim: Developing reported speech grammar and productions skills Activity: Introduction and written reporting activity, followed by spoken practice in the form of a questionnaire Level: Upper-intermediate Outline: Introduce/review reported speech by making simple statements and asking students to report what you have said. Make sure to emphasize reporting in the past (i.e., the teacher said, NOT the teacher says)Provide review sheet of principle reported speech transitions (included in lesson printout pages)Have students get into pairs and convert the reported speech paragraph into the direct speech form.Correct worksheet as a class.Ask students to divide up into new pairs and ask each other questions from the questionnaire. Remind them to take notes on what their partners say.Have students divide into new pairs and ask them to report what they have learned about the other students to their new partner (i.e., John said he had lived in Breubach for two years).Follow-up with class conversation focusing on problematic tense transformations. Reported Speech Study the following chart carefully. Notice how reported speech is one step back into the past from direct speech. Tense Quote Reported Speech present simple I play tennis on Fridays. He said he played tennis on Fridays. present continuous Theyre watching TV. She said they were watching TV. present perfect Shes lived in Portland for ten years. He told me she had lived in Portland for ten years. present perfect continuous Ive been working for two hours. He told me he had been working for two hours. past simple I visited my parents in New York. She told me she had visited her parents in New York. past continuous They were preparing dinner at 8 oclock. He told me they had been preparing dinner at 8 oclock. past perfect I had finished in time. He told me he had finished in time. past perfect continuous She had been waiting for two hours. She said she had been waiting for two hours. future with will Ill see them tomorrow. He said he would see them the next day. future with going to Were going to fly to Chicago. He told me they were going to fly to Chicago. Reported Speech Reference Time Expression Changes Time expressions such as at the moment are also changed when using reported speech. Here are some of the most common changes: at the moment / right now / now -Ã at that moment / at that time Were watching TV right now. - She told me they were watching TV at that time. yesterday - the previous day / the day before I bought some groceries yesterday. - He told me he had bought some groceries the previous day. tomorrow - the following day / the next day Shell be at the party tomorrow. - She told me she would be at the party the next day. Exercise 1: Put the following paragraph in the reported speech into theÃ conversational form using direct speechÃ (quotes). Peter introduced me to Jack who said he was pleased to meet me. I replied that it was my pleasureÃ and that I hoped Jack was enjoying his stay in Seattle. He said he thought Seattle was a beautiful city, but that it rained too much. He said that he had been staying at the Bayview Hotel for three weeks and that it hadnt stopped raining since he had arrived. Of course, he said, this wouldnt have surprised him if it hadnt been July! Peter replied that he should have brought warmer clothes. He then continued by saying that he was going to fly to Hawaii the following week, and he that he couldnt wait to enjoy some sunny weather. Both Jack and I commented that Peter was a lucky person indeed. Exercise 2: Ask your partner the following questions making sure to take good notes. After you have finished the questions, find a new partner and report what you have learned about your first partner using reported speech. What is your favorite sport and how long have you been playing/doing it?What are your plans for your next vacation?How long have you known your best friend? Can you give me a description of him/her?What kind of music do you like? Have you always listened to that kind of music?What did you use to do when you were younger that you dont do anymore?Do you have any predictions about the future?Can you tell me what you do on a typical Saturday afternoon?What were you doing yesterday at this time?Which two promises will you make concerning learning English?
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 7:58 AM
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Apply one Leadership Theory to an organization's leadership failure - Essay Example l leadership can be understood by an in depth study of a recent case of planned closure of Toyota operation in Australia by 2017 (Toyota to stop making cars in Australia, follows Ford and Holden). The unionized workforce was blamed for the issue raised in the organization. There existed a grievance between the labor union and management, not which again is a result of organizational leadership failure. The failure of self leadership among the employees of the firm irrespective of their position in the firm happens to be one of the major reasons of closure of a business (Yukl, 2007). An organizations rationale and goals can be explained in countless ways consisting a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s mission, vision, stratagem, goals, tactics and errands. The objective of this report is to carry out an in depth analysis of what are the reasons behind the failure of organizational leadership through a case study. Many successful organizations crash in presence of dysfunctional leaders in an organization. Moreover, the issue is not considered to be problematic. The people in position of leadership can be seen as risk managers other than leaders. When leaders turn to taskmasters and instead of surrendering they are yearning to become control freaks then they gradually fail to motivate and encourage their co workers. In addition they fail to lead their co workers (Bayode, 2008). The signs of leadership malfunction are quite effortless to find out if one has open eyes towards the arising problem of an organization. Employees have a perception that they are valued less and also are not considered to be trustworthy. The companies nowadays are engaged in methodically assassinating leadership by lime lighting towards the risk management other than leadership development. The process is considered to be much more imperative than the workforce of an organization. When performance is valued less and th e potential is considered to be superior and when independent thinking lays at the backseat
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 1:36 AM