Wednesday, December 25, 2019
When it comes to the topic of alcohol, most of us will readily agree that yes it is an addiction. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of no alcohol is not an addiction. Whereas some are convinced that yes it is, others maintain that no it is not. Anyone can be addicted to alcohol, but alcohol is not in and of itself an addiction. The capacity of absorbing alcohol in tremendous amounts can occur over weeks or years, which can lead the individual not to have an addiction to alcohol. Many will ask the question of can excessive use of alcohol become an addiction? No, alcohol cannot be an addiction, some would contest consumption that consuming alcohol is for mere fun. Others still maintain the fact that the addiction is more of a destructive behavior because that is what occurred in their confusion. They argue, in fact, there is no major result of alcohol other than the fact an individual becomes drunk to cover up pain that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t lead the person to bec ome an addict. Another question asked, could alcohol lead to having other addictions? No, Scientists have discovered points of alcohol addictions and whether or not it is even an addiction but more of a disease. In all actuality, these scientists retain of alcoholism is more heredity rather than an addiction, since they look at it as a Ã¢â¬Å"neuroanatomicalÃ¢â¬ this focuses on the individuals affects of emotions of happiness or melancholy. Researchers indicate the basics of what they callShow MoreRelatedAddiction: More Than Just a Word Essay example1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAddiction: More Than Just a Word Ã¢â¬Å"Prevention usually is translated as parents having conversations with their adolescent children, pointing out the dangers of alcohol.Ã¢â¬ (Kramer, LizSprague, Nancy, Alcohol Abuse Youth: An Overview). Children do not understand the effectiveness of something powerful like alcohol. They do, however, understand that alcohol can cause a person to become intoxicated. From seeing it on TV, they think it is fun. Also, children do not really pay attention to theRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol On The Human Body786 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfocuses on alcohol addiction. Alcohol is a flammable liquid which often intoxicates drinks (WebMD, 2016). Examples of the drinks include beer, wine, and other beverages. Component parts of this interest includes what factors that influence or encourage alcohol usage and addiction?, What methods are utilized to decrease oneÃ¢â¬â¢s alcohol usage?, and what are the effects of alcohol on the human body? I became curious about this question because I have family members and relatives who suffer from alcohol addictionRead MoreAlcohol Dependence: A Case Study1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesVIGNETTE CASE STUDY Alcohol is not merely a recreational drink. It is a tool to destroy personal and family lives if uncontrolled. Different people have different levels of control over the use of alcohol where some can actually use it only on occasions while others mess up their lives for it. Teens particularly are prone to the hazards of alcohol if they start quitting school to. The role of family is very significant in helping alcoholics overcome their addiction and lead a healthy non-alcoholicRead MoreEssay on The Concept of Dual Addiction1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Concept of Dual Addiction This research paper will focus on the concept of dual addiction specifically, that of alcohol addiction and simultaneous nicotine addiction. I should make note at this point of my personal interest in the addictive process is a result of the existence of addiction in my family. I have experienced and observed the chaos, hardships and tragedies in my family as a result of the progressive nature of the addiction process. First, I would like to provide a general definitionRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol And Drugs On Society Essay1510 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEven more significant is the abuse of alcohol and how alcohol has affected modern society. For several decades, alcohol and drugs has been a major problem in our society. Not only has the drug problem increased but also drug related problems are rising day by day. There is no crime in the world that kills teenagers more than alcohol does. Those substances affect the body in many ways. As they say, anything that anyone gets addicted to is called addiction. Addiction is partly Biological, psychologicalRead MoreAlcohol Addiction Causes, Treatment And Tips Essay811 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlcohol Addiction Causes, Treatment and Tips By Lourdes Amil | Submitted On January 11, 2011 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Lourdes Amil There are many methods to take steps to correctingRead MoreThe Long Lasting Effect of Alcohol on The Brain1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnearly 80,000 people die from alcohol-related causes, making it the third leading preventable cause of death in our countryÃ¢â¬ (Alcohol Facts 1). Alcoholism is a major controversy in the United States, and many debate whether alcoholism is a disease or choice. Accordingly, based on scientific evidence, alcoholism is a disease because it has major long-term effects on the brain, it is an addiction, and it is treated medically. The first major reason alcoholism should be considered disease is the long-lastingRead MoreThe Psychology Of Addictive Behaviors1333 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBehaviors in the life of Adolescence When dealing with addictive behaviors in Psychology, people find that adolescents are more likely to get involved with addictions and uncontrollable wants with things such as alcohol, smoking, drugs, sex, and much more. With those subjects listed, the age groups more prone to opening up doors to these addictions are the ages of 18-23. This is said for a number of reasons. There is loneliness from living away from home, there is more personal responsibility to manageRead More Drug And Alcohol Abuse Essay994 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesof Missouri, the issue I would encourage him to address is the manufacture of drugs and the use of drugs and alcohol throughout our state. The advice I would give him is to impose stiffer penalties for those who manufacture drugs and focus on prevention, and, most importantly, rehabilitation, of those who abuse alcohol or drugs.According to the Missouri Department of Mental Health, alcohol and drug abuse affects more than 259,000 Missourians and another 800, 000 who are family members of substanceRead MoreWhat Drug Did The French Doctor Use Help Rein His Cravings For Alcohol? Essay1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat drug did the French doctor use to help curb his cravings for alcohol? In order to curb his cravings for alcohol, the French doctor used a muscle relaxant named baclofen to Ã¢â¬Å"flip a switchÃ¢â¬ and get rid of his cravings for alcohol. He initially tried lower doses which did not seem to have an effect, but higher doses of the drug allowed the doctor to rid himself of the cravings for alcohol, and eventually he was indifferent to alcohol after the drug. Later it was found that there were more cases where
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 3:22 AM
Monday, December 16, 2019
Hayden Webster Mr. Drake AP Lit 12 January 2014 Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen (1813) Elizabeth Bennet: Elizabeth Bennet is the protagonist of the novel. Her prejudice and tendency to pass quick judgment (hence the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s title) takes a large effect on her relationships, especially her relationship with Mr. Darcy. Unimpressed by wealth and status, she differs from her somewhat naÃ ¯ve sister Jane in that she allows herself to see that humans are flawed beings. Put simplyÃ¢â¬âElizabeth is Ã¢â¬Å"real.Ã¢â¬ Elizabeth is initially put off by what she sees as superficial attempts by Mr. Darcy to win her over with arrogance and flashes of status, however, Darcy is intrigued by ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s wit and intelligence, a far cry from many women of her time. However, though Elizabeth is in fact prejudiced, she is self-aware. As she grows to realize Mr. DarcyÃ¢â¬â¢s true character, and, consequently, her love for her, she admits to both herself and to him that she loves himÃ¢â¬âan act of swallowing her pride. Mr. Darcy: In the sense of possessing both pride and prejudice, Mr. Darcy is ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s counterpart. Coming from a wealthy family, his high status, intelligence, and wealth gives him an inflated sense of pride and also a prejudice that creates a tendency to judge those below him. Such arrogance makes him a generally disliked character, though his status is envied. However, Elizabeth is unimpressed by wealth, and is extremely unreceptive to his advances at firstÃ¢â¬âshe turns down his marriage proposal,Show MoreRelatedPride And Prejudice By Jane Austen Essay1724 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe 18th century novel, Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen, is a fascinating book about a young womanÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle with family and love. Pride and Prejudice was originally published in 1813, but, the most common version of the story, and the one used for this research, is from the version published in 1892, still by only Jane Austen, though many other authors have contributed to this book over time. Austen often references the class system at the time, often noting one of the multiple heroineÃ¢â¬â¢s struggleRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen1467 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen is a classic novel that has remained relevant even years after its release. Its themes and symbols are understandable to even the most modern of reader. One of the many themes is sisterhood, something that is focused on constantly throughout the novel. Elizabeth Bennet, the protagonist of the novel, finds many of her decisions to be based upon the actions of her sisters. Making sisterhood a main driving force. Whether they are confiding in each other for marriageRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen872 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn my personal cherished novel, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, the worlds of two immensely divergent people display the marxist idea of the importance of social status and its affect on the people. The two main characters seem to be on opposite ends of the earth in terms of an affluent Mr. Darcy being so privileged while on the contrary, Miss Elizabeth Bennet is of a lower class. Throughout the novel, there is a fine distinction between their clashing opinions and actions that are highly influencedRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen Essay1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshe 18th century novel, Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen, is a fascinating book about a young womanÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle with family and love. Pride and Prejudice was originally published in 1813, but, the most common version of the story, and the one used for this research, is from the version published in 1892, still by only Jane Austen, though many other authors have contributed to this book over time. Austen often references the class system at the time, often noting one of the multiple heroineÃ¢â¬â¢s struggleRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen1285 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPride and Prejudice Analysis I.Introduction Jane Austen wrote her novels during the time period known as the Regency. The Enlightenment and the Age of Reason, a time where ideas like democracy, secularism, and the rise of developing sciences were making their way across Europe had come to an end.It was replaced with the wave of horror that was the French Revolution, a once minor revolt that escalated into a violent war, concluding with the rise of Napoleon, which whom England fought against the majorityRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen1384 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNicole Voyatzis Professor W. Acres HISTORY 1401E May 26, 2015 Discussion Paper - Pride and Prejudice Pride and Prejudice written in 1813 by Jane Austen tells the story of The BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s and their five unmarried daughters. The family live as part of the lower gentry in early 19th century England. With that being said, Mrs. BennetÃ¢â¬â¢s primary focus in life is to ensure that all her daughters are married, preferably to wealthy men. The book begins with Mrs. Bennet seeing an opportunity for her daughtersRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe comical novel Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen depicts the love life of women in the early 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. Austen shows the hardships young women in that time period had to go threw to find their place in this world. Women were thought of as objects to the men, they were supposed to be stay at home mothers, or simple just a accessory to their partner. Women were the subordinates in life, as they still are today. Austen tells the story of how Mrs. Bennet (a mother of 5) works tirelessly to get her daughte rsRead MoreJane Austen: Pride and Prejudice 1086 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJane Austen, born December 16, 1775, was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction earned her a place as one of the most widely read authors in English literature. AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s novels critique the life of the second half of the eighteenth century and are part of the transition to nineteenth-century realism. Though her novels were by no means autobiographical, her fictional characters do shed light on the facts of her life and but more importantly, they offered aspiring writers a model of howRead MorePride And Prejudice By Jane Austen914 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Bell 1 Natalie Bell Pedersen English 4 honors 29 February 2016 Pride and Prejudice Essay Jane Austen s novel, Pride and Prejudice, focuses on the social conflicts of England during the 1800s. Elizabeth Bennet and Mr. Darcy fall in love, and face social criticism. Mr. Darcy struggles with the ideology of societal expectations while falling in love with Elizabeth Bennet. After persistent self-reflection, Mr. Darcy overcomes the stereotype of whom he should marry, and marries ElizabethRead More Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen 1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrate of over 50% from 1970-2010. However, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, marriage was often one of the few choices for a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s occupation. Reading Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen from the twenty-first century perspective might make some matters that are stressed in the book seem dated or trivial. As Pride and Prejudice was set sometime during the Napoleonic Wars, it is only fitting that finding a proper marriage is on the minds of many of the women in the book. Marriage and marrying
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 11:12 PM
Sunday, December 8, 2019
Question 1 In May 2013 the Queensland Government passed the Commercial Leases Act 2013 (Qld) [fictional] to regulate commercial leases within Queensland. Section 4 of the Act provides that a retail shop is only permitted to open on Sundays, or a declared public holiday in Queensland, between the hours of 10.00am and 4.30pm. Section 5 of the Act provides that when opening on Sundays, a retail shop must only use staff that have volunteered to work on that day. Roderick is the owner and operator of two duty free shops: one located in Brisbane City and the other located at Brisbane Airport on Commonwealth land. Rodericks lease for Brisbane Airport requires the duty free shop to trade on a continuous 24 hour basis to cater for the arrival and departure of international travellers. The Brisbane City shop opens for trade on Sundays between 9.30am and 3.00pm. The Brisbane Airport lease is made under the Commonwealth Airports Administration Act 2008 (Cth) [fictional] which operates in relation to all Commonwealth owned airports. Under Section 13 of the Act, the Federal Aviation Corporation may enter into a retail lease in respect of any airport terminal owned by the Commonwealth; and may do so on such terms as the Corporation may determine for the benefit of the travelling public. a. What is the effect of section 109 of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (The Constitution); and how does section 109 operate in relation to an Act passed by the Queensland Parliament? b. What power/s does the Commonwealth Parliament have under The Constitution to enact the Commonwealth Airports Administration Act 2008(Cth)? As part of your answer, explain where constitutional disputes might be heard? c. Does the Commercial Leases Act 2013 (Qld) impact upon the trading operations of either of Rodericks two duty free shops? Answer 1 The given case of Roderick is based on the two shops in the city of Queensland in Australia . Out of the two shops one of the shop deals with the commonwealth for the benefit of the public and the other one is located in the city of Brisbane. These shops are not covered by an duty payment provisions and have different working hours. 1. (a) In this question the applicability of Section 109 of the Australian Commonwealth act is being tested where there is a difference arising is in the state laws and the commonwealth laws of the state. The case is being interpreted on the basis of the requirement of the question and the application of the same in solving the case law of the two shops in Australia. As per the laws in Australia the power to vest rests with both the state and the commonwealth laws, so both of them can exercise their powers in making of the laws. wealth laws. So both state and commonwealth have full power to make laws. But this might create a conflicting interest of both the houses as the law is being made on the similar provisions and issue. If both of them provide for different solution there might be conflict between the two. So solve the issue the applicability the Section 109 of the Act comes into light. The provisions of the section provide that there when there is a conflict between the state and the CommonHealth laws then the provisions of the common wealth law are being considered to prevail over the state laws in case of all conflicts. But this would be the case only for the inconstant part and all the others would remain the same. In the case given the Section 109 of the constitution operates and the act passed by the government of Queensland is prevalent only to the limit of the inconsistent part with the state laws. (Government 2011) 1. (b) The parliament as named for Commonwealth parliament always works for the benefits of the nation and the public associated with it throughout the nation. It has various powers under the laws and the provisions to change or use a particular provision related to the Commonwealth Airports Administration Act 2008. But the authority should make sure that whatever powers are used should be in the interest of the public. Some of the enacted powers are Management of the operation hours of the airports. To resolve the conflicts arising from the state and the commercial laws of the state. To transfer the cases in case of the disputes that cannot be decided on the common reading of law. To take decisions regarding the extension of the provisions of the faculties for the people around Australia. There is a constitutional dispute when there are various interpretation of the statues and the laws made by constitution and this creates conflict with the geranial laws in the operation. In such cases the reference to the superior authority such as the High Court becomes necessary as in the case provided. The high court being a superior authority can direct the state and the commonwealth laws in the favour of the benefits to the public at large. The high court gets to these cases after the state laws and the commonwealth body in Australia fails to take important steps in this matter or there is no proper jurisdiction to sit on the facts of the case that it had to be brought to the table of the high court for resolution. The cases that are not constitutional can be invalidated by the High Court but that these can be done only after the case is properly analysed by the high court authority and if feels that these can be managed by the State or the Commonwealth then it can be handled b y the respective authority and the will forward the case to be dealt with accordingly. In the other cases the high court will decide on the matter (Office) 1. (c) Section 4 of the Commercial Leases Act 2013 provides that the retail shops can only be allowed to operate between 1030 hrs and 1630 hours on Sundays and holidays except the cases where the shop is located in the state of Queensland of Australia. The law also provides that the operation of the shops can only be done and operated by the hired and casual workers and not the regular employees of the company. In the given case of Roderick there are two shops and both of them are duty free in the country of Australia. The shop located in the corners of the Brisbane report is not being covered under the provisions of the the Commercial Leases Act 2013. This shop near the airport can remain operative for 24 hours on all 7 days. This will not violate the provisions of the Commercial Leases Act 2013, as the common wealth laws are obeyed in the case of conflict on some matter so the shop will be legalise and the provision would not be applicable for this sop in Brisbane. But the second shop would be covered by the Commercial Leases Act as located in the Brisbane City which is in Queensland and the Section 4 is attracted in this case. As there are no conflicts between the state and the constitutional laws so the normal provision would be effected, the reason for this applicability is the non existence of any conflicts between the constitutional laws and the state laws. In spite of the fact that the Brisbane City shop is a duty free shop but still it falls specifically under the state laws and thus the provisions of the state laws will be applicable in this case. So the shop near the airport can be operated for 24 hours as no limits are being effected for that but in the case of the other shop the limits of the time should be allowed to them as the laws are applicable for it. Question 2 Sydney Harbour Rescue Pty Ltd (Sydney), a privately owned company, provides sea patrol and rescue services to the NSW Government under a highly profitable ten year contract. In January 2014, Sydney contracted with Brisbane Marine, a Queensland-based boat manufacturer, to build and supply a newly designed high speed wave-piercing catamaran. The contract price was $650,000. The contract specified that the new catamaran must be able to operate at a continuous speed of at least 50 knots full of fuel, with a crew of five; and have an operational range of at least 250 nautical miles. The contract also specified that the catamaran was required to be finished and delivered to Sydney by 30 June 2014; otherwise Brisbane Marine would pay liquidated damages of $80,000 per day up to the date of delivery. Four months into to the contract Brisbane Marine informed Sydney that it would not be able to complete the project on time without payment of an additional $85,000. Brisbane Marine indicated they would use the money to engage additional contractors to work on the catamaran. In a brief face-to-face meeting, Sydney initially informed representatives of Brisbane Marine that it had a binding contract and would claim liquidated damages if the catamaran was not delivered on the specified date. Three days after that meeting with Sydney representatives, Brisbane Marine informed Sydney in writing that no further work on the catamaran will be undertaken until the $85,000 is paid. Reluctantly, Sydney pays the additional money, to ensure delivery of the catamaran by 30 June 2014 and to meet its contractual obligations with the NSW Government. After delivery of the catamaran, Sydney found that it proved quite unsuitable for harbour patrol and rescue use. The new catamaran was very unstable in bad weather: it was slow and couldnt exceed 30 knots, fuel consumption was excessive, and the engine broke down several times requiring expensive repairs of $30,000. After just five months use, Sydney had little option but to withdraw it from service. The catamaran was sold for just $200,000. To avoid the risk of breaching its demanding harbour patrol and rescue contract, Sydney then bought a larger, more capable $1.3 million patrol boat from TasKat, a Tasmanian boat manufacturer. a. Is the liquidated damages clause in the contract with Brisbane Marine valid? b. Could Sydney claim economic duress in relation to the additional payment? If not, would the additional payment be recoverable for lack of consideration? c. Sydney seeks your advice as to whether it can sue Brisbane Marine for damages under Australian common law contract rules? Answer 2 2. (a) The Liquidated damages clause in the contract with Brisbane Marine is valid or not: Liquidity damage refers to a compensation which is paid by one party to another. If there is a contract between them in which the former party could not complete the work within a stipulated period, then it has to pay to the later party a particular amount as compensation which is termed as liquidated damages. . (Cruise, 2013) However, liquidated damages do not come into the scenario when the party is intending to penalize the other party for any malpractice that would be Penalty and not liquidated damages. This was held in the case of Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co. Ltd. v New Garage Motor Co. Ltd. (1915). The liquidity damages clause would specifically indicate the loss (the details of loss, head of accounts) that the company has to bear if the other company does not complete the contract within the time specified, and also would provide that it is not a penalty but only a compensation as without completion of the task within the stipulated time would affect the company. (Rogers, 2012) In this case, Sydney Harbour Rescue Pty Ltd has only provided in the contract with Brisbane Marine that if the later company could not finish the job and deliver the same by 30th June 2014, a liquidated damage of $80,000 per day up to the date of delivery. The clause did not include what loss and in what head it would incur. The significance of providing the amount $80,000 is not mentioned, for which the liquidity damage clause did not hold good. 2. (b) Economic Duress in relation to additional payment Economic duress is threatening the party involved in a contract to do something as per demand of the other party who are in the contract with them. In an economic duress, unless the demand of the party is fulfilled, they threat to cancel the agreement. (Ohrenstein) The background of the case explains that Brisbane Marine (Brisbane) claimed $85,000 from Sydney saying they would need such amount for completion of the project to engage additional labour. Later Sydney informed Brisbane to deliver the same within stipulated period. After 3 days Brisbane informed in writing to Sydney that until $85,000 is paid to them, they will not work further in that project. Sydney paid such amount to them unwillingly, but later after delivery of the Catamaran, it was found that it is quality wise very low and is unable to perform well, engine broke down and $30,000 expended; later it was sold for $2, 00,000. In this case, there was a continuing contract between the parties; Brisbane has informed Sydney that they need the amount so that they can complete the catamaran within fixed time. It was not an act of coercion, but they said they would stop their work if the amount was not paid. Sydney, if did not pay the amount, the contract could not have been completed and delivered within 30th June 2014. The intention of Brisbane to do harm to Sydney was not evident from this case as the employment of labourers to complete the contract could have been necessary. But Sydney had no option as it would have otherwise subjected to contractual obligation of government. (Tan, 2002) Whether the additional payment can be recoverable Lack of consideration was involved as Sydney unwillingly paid $85,000 to Brisbane. In this decision, there was no mutuality involved. However, the amount was paid so that the project continues. The amount could be recovered only if Sydney can prove that the amount was taken by doing fraud or coercion. 2. (c) Whether Sydney can sue Brisbane Marine under Australian common law contract rules: In the backdrop of the case, the catamaran which was delivered by Brisbane Marine to Sydney was not as per the agreement entered into the contract for following reasons. The catamaran did not exceed 30knots whereas it was mentioned in the agreement that it must be able to operate at a continuous speed of 50knots. The engine broke up a couple of times and a repair costing $ 30,000 was incurred after just five months. The work performed by Brisbane did not result well as the catamaran was not efficient and up to the mark. It was later sold for only $2, 00,000 whereas the contract price was $6, 50,000. Later, Sidney bought a more capable patrol boat from TasKat, a Tasmanian boat manufacturer. Sydney can claim damage if it successfully proves that Brisbane could not meet as per contractual terms and conditions. Consideration in a contract refers to a promise made by one party to another in a contract. Here, the agreement was entered and the resultant catamaran was not as per the terms and conditions of the agreement. On the basis of this, Sydney Harbour Rescue Pty Ltd can claim damage or sue Brisbane Marine for not complying with the agreement. (Markovits, 2004) The agreement entered before must be signed by the competent authority making contract otherwise, the reasonableness of presence of contract would not be present and damages could not be claimed. In the process of claiming damages or suing, the company has to inform the other company (who has breached the contract) in a notice before going for a court proceeding. The Australian Common Law of Contract rules presently broadened the scope by introducing guarantee to consumers, remedy to unfair trade, liability of manufacturers etc. In this situation, the catamaran was sold in loss. The breaching company took an extra amount from the other company to deliver the product in time; the product was delivered on time but suffered from many difficulties. Thus, Sydney can claim damages from Brisbane by addressing on the particular issues that their loss has been incurred due to non performance or mistake from the part of Brisbane.(Alan Schwartz, 2003) Question 3 Common law misrepresentation overlaps with the statutory misleading conduct provisions. a. Explain how section 18 of The Australian Consumer Law differs from an actionable claim for misrepresentation under general common law? b. Explain how remedies under The Australian Consumer Law for a breach of section 18 differ from the remedies available for misrepresentation under general common law? Answer 3 3. (a) Section 18 of Consumer Law as well as the general law both provide for relief in the case of misrepresentation in case of contractual obligation earlier decided. The common law tends to provide remedies through the provisions of Consumer and protection Act 2010. This common law tends to provides relief by the mode of actionable claims over the parties in case of contracts are covered by the common law which are generally non commercial in nature. The claim of representation that arises during the contract of commercial nature where a fact induces a person to enter to a contract which is false in nature is generally covered by the Section 18 of the consumer law instead of general law. So section 18 pays a special intention on trade or commerce related contracts and provides rules for actionable claims on such cases only. The coverage area forms the basis of difference for the remedy provided under the common law and the commercial law which is covered under Australian Consumer law. The actionable claim under the common law is being more consumers oriented and focused on solving the issues of the consumers and people around. So the action taken by the different bodies would differ in both the cases and would therefore be handled by two laws for the purpose of the representation. The sale and trading related contracts would be taken care by the Consumer Law where as the other part would be dealt by the general commercial laws of the state. This would ensure better consultancy to the cases where consumers are a part. 3. (b) As the main principle of the formation of this Australian Consumer law is to differentiate the remedies that are available under the general commercial law and Section 18 of the Australian Consumer law. The ACL prohibits the misleading representations that are being provided by the act as any misrepresentation of the trade of commerce of the property that is to be sold which of violating nature would be considered as violating the provisions of the act. The law provides for any wrong disclosure of wrong trade policy to the consumer which might enable the public o enter into the contract. The remedies provided by the act are being governed by the law as it might cause an injunction order to be passed in the name of the party committing the fault. The remedies available are injunction orders, claiming the damages from the defaulting party. In the case of the general law the remedies depend on the type of fault and the motive behind the representation of the case and generally consist of the rescission of contracts and claim for damages. So the remedy in Section 18 is more illustrative and conceptual and does not provide for the cancellation of the contract easily by the people. The ge neral law is less strict as it does not deal with the consumers and hence contractual parties can get rid of the contract easily without any issue. So the law had been providing remedy on the basis of the person dealing with it and this enables better judicial features. Question 4 ABC Limited (the Company) is a small goods manufacturer in Brisbane. The company wants to appoint an agent to source international buyers specifically in the Asian market for the purchase of its small goods. The agent will have authority to enter into contracts up to $5 million on behalf of the Company. a. What general advice would you give to the Company regarding the agency appointment? Include in your answer advice regarding the duties and rights of the incoming agent? b. Outline the significance of any restrictions of the agency appointment. Include in your answer any remedies available to the Company if the agent exceeds the restrictions? In January 2014, ABC Limited appointed Xerxes under a two year express agency agreement, to the advertised position of sole agent for the Asia region. In April 2014, Xerxes obtained, on her own initiative, a highly profitable twelve month contract for an Icelandic company, Chilled Invested Limited to purchase a variety of small goods from ABC Limited. The contract was to commence 1st June 2014. The contract sum was $5 million. In September 2014 ABC Limited had second thoughts about continuing to sell the goods to Chilled Invested Limited. c. Is ABC Limited able to withdraw from the agreement? Is there a valid purchase contract in place? Answer 4 4. (c) In the month of January 2014 ABC limited appoints Xerxes in a two year contract in order to secure contracts in the Asian region. The agent procured a 12 month contract from a buyer named as Chilled Invested Limited (Assumed Iceland Buyer, non Asian region). The main issue is here is that is ratification possible over and above the Here the discussion is that whether the principal can ratify the agents work above the authority vested in it. Here it is given that the company ABC Limited started the trade from Iceland also. So even if the acts of the agent Xerxes were exceeding its authority yet the contract was ratified by the principal. There is no issue in this case The reason for the agreement that was entered between the principal ABC Limited and the agent Xerxes for 2 years and the principal can withdraw from the agreement before maturity only on the fulfilment of the conditions specified therein the agreement. The reason for this is that the agent does not have the authority of entering into a contract with a Non Asian Buyer during the period of contract Note: If we assume the Chilled Invested Limited is an Asian Buyer then it is a Valid Contract. References Australia, Government of. Australian Government. https://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/alrc-80-legal-risk-international-transactions/8-australian-remedies-misappropriation-an. Government. "Changeling aspects." 2011. https://www.changelingaspects.com/PDF/The%20Australian%20Constitution%20Conflict%20of%20Laws.pdf. Office, Parliamentary Education. PEO. https://www.peo.gov.au/learning/closer-look/the-australian-constitution/the-constitution-and-the-high-court.html. Alan Schwartz, R. E. (2003). Contract Theory and the Limits of Contract Law. Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository-Faculty Scholarship Series , 595-597. Cruise, R. (2013). Penalty clauses and liquidated damages: Traps for the unwary. Shoosmiths-Home-Client Resources-2013 legal updates , 1-2. Markovits, D. (2004). Contract and Collaboration. The Yale Law Journal , 1-2. Ohrenstein, D. (n.d.). KEY DEVELOPMENTS IN CONTRACT LAW:ECONOMIC DURESS. Radcliffe Chambers , 1. Rogers, B. (2012). Liquidated Damages Clause Example. The Contracts Guy , 1. Tan, D. (2002). CONSTRUCTING A DOCTRINE OF ECONOMIC DURESS. Construction Law Journal , 1-3.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 7:54 PM
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Power Struggles in Society Mills, Schudson, and Gitlin show different approaches to society and the role of mass media. Each approach helps illustrate a different focus on society. They each hold special relevance in a discussion of the history of societal beliefs. The Mass Society refers to the overall belief C. Wright Mills held in relation to the type of society he believed we live in. Mills began The Power Elite with a bold statement saying, "The powers of ordinary men are circumscribed by the everyday words in which they live, yet even in these rounds of job, family, and neighborhood they often seem driven by forces they can neither understand nor govern" (Mills, 1956, p.3). This opening sentence helps describe the attitude and beliefs of the entire book. A "power elite" exists in a society that is made up of three spheres. They are divided into economy, political, and military, with the same group of people interchanging between the three. This large group of elite is at the top making all the decisions, while the masses are at the bottom, unaware of the process that molds public opinion. Masses within this view of society are irrelevant and do not have any type of influence. The media functions as an entertainment source, keeping the masses entertained while the elite is taking care of all the important matters. It helps keep the reality and truth of the world obscured from the masses. Mills explained what the media does for the masses as "they distract him and obscure his chance to understand himself or his world, by fastening his attention upon artificial frenzies that are revolved within the program framework, usually by violent action or by what is called humor" (Mills, p.315). This helps illuminate how the mass media guides, tries to control, and manipulates the masses. Mills describes the effect of mass media as "a sort of psychological illiteracy" to the extent that we "often do not believe what we see before us until we read about it in the paper or hear about it on the radio" (Mills, p.311). The masses "standards of credulity, standards of reality, tend to be set by these media rather than by 'the masses' own fragmentary experience" (Mills p.311 ). Mass media's role helps prevent the questioning of the elite. "Families and churches and schools adapt to modern life; governments and armies and corporations shape it; and, as they do so, they turn these lesser institutions into means for their ends" (Mills, p.6). The family into which someone was born or marries into helps improve or decrease their social status. The school where one is educated or the church where one worships also plays a major role in the social standing. Schools teach skills to the masses that enable them to function in society. Institutions shape life and the masses adapt to what institutions create. The masses in the theory are very disorganized and not connected to others. An excellent way to describe to masses can be shown by watching The Twilight Zone movie. It is a state of total confusion for everyone, with each doing their own thing. The elite enjoy the state of confusion with the masses, because they are able to control the major decisions that must be made. They determine the policies and the people enlist in them. In the mass society, the elite control the policies and ways of thinking for the confused masses. Schudson approaches the nature of society in a much different way, through the idea of the democratic society. In Discovering the News, he discussed "an even distribution of income" and described the 1800's as "more people acquired wealth and political power 'bringing' with them a zeal for equal opportunity that led to the expansion of public education" (Schudson, 1978, p.44). When looking at society as a whole, you have them socially, economically, and politically integrated. "Economic development was promoted and shared by many rather than few" (Schudson, p.45). The press does not cause, but picks up elements, reflects, and builds from a democratic society. "The democratization of economic life brought with it attitudes that stressed economic gain to the exclusion of social aims; business practice more regularly began to reward strictly economic ties over
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 7:36 AM
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Emma Watsons UN Speech on Gender Equality On Sep. 20,Ã 2014, British actor and Goodwill Ambassador for U.N. Women Emma WatsonÃ gave a smart, important, and moving speech about gender inequality and how to fight it. In doing so, she launched the HeForShe initiative, which aims to get men and boys to join the feminist fight for gender equality. In the speech, Watson made the important point that in order for gender equality to be achieved, harmful and destructive stereotypes of masculinity and behavioral expectations for boys and men have got to change. Biography Emma Watson is a British actress and model born in 1990, who is best known for her 10-year stint as Hermione Granger in the eight Harry Potter movies. Born in Paris, France to a pair of now-divorced British lawyers, she made a reported $15 million dollars for playing Granger in each of the last two Harry Potter films. Watson began taking acting classes at six years of age and was selected for the Harry Potter cast in 2001 at age nine. She attended the Dragon School at Oxford, and then the Headington private girls school. Eventually, she received a bachelors degree in English literature at Brown University in the United States. Watson has been actively involved in humanitarian causes for several years, working to promote fair trade and organic clothing, and as an ambassador for Camfed International, a movement to educate girls in rural Africa. Celebrity Feminism Watson is one of several women in the arts who have leveraged their high profile status to bring womens rights issues to the public eye. The list includes Jennifer Lawrence, Patricia Arquette, Rose McGowan, Annie Lennox, Beyonce, Carmen Maura, Taylor Swift, Lena Dunham, Katy Perry, Kelly Clarkson, Lady Gaga, and Shailene Woodley, although some have refused to self-identify as feminists. These women have been both celebrated and criticized for the positions they have taken; the term celebrity feminist is sometimes used to denigrate their credentials or question their authenticity, but there is no doubt that their championships of different causes have shed public light into myriad issues. The U.N. and HeForShe Eduardo Munoz Alvarez / Getty Images In 2014, Watson was named a U.N. Women Goodwill Ambassador by the United Nations, a program that actively involves prominent personalities in the fields of arts and sports to promote U.N. programs. Her role is to serve as an advocate for U.N. Womens gender equality campaign known as HeForShe. HeForShe, led by the U.N.s Elizabeth Nyamayaro and under the direction of Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, is a program dedicated to improving the status of women and inviting men and boys around the world to stand in solidarity with women and girls as they make that make gender equality a reality. The speech at the United Nations was part of her official role as U.N. Women Goodwill Ambassador. Below is theÃ full transcript of her 13-minute speech; after that is a discussion of the speechs reception. Emma Watsons Speech at the U.N. Today we are launching a campaign called HeForShe. I am reaching out to you because we need your help. We want to end gender inequality, and to do this, we need everyone involved. This is the first campaign of its kind at the UN. We want to try to mobilize as many men and boys as possible to be advocates for change. And, we donÃ¢â¬â¢t just want to talk about it. We want to try and make sure that itÃ¢â¬â¢s tangible. I was appointed as Goodwill Ambassador for UN Women sixÃ months ago. And, the more I spoke about feminism, the more I realized that fighting for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights has too often become synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I know for certain, it is that this has to stop. For the record, feminism by definition is the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theory of political, economic and social equality of the sexes. I started questioning gender-based assumptions a long time ago. When I was 8, I was confused for being called bossy because I wanted to direct the plays that we would put on for our parents, but the boys were not. When at 14, I started to be sexualized by certain elements of the media. When at 15, my girlfriends started dropping out of sports teams because they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to appear muscly. When at 18, my male friends were unable to express their feelings. I decided that I was a feminist, and this seemed uncomplicated to me. But my recent research has shown me that feminism has become an unpopular word. Women are choosing not to identify as feminists. Apparently, IÃ¢â¬â¢m among the ranks of women whose expressions are seen as too strong, too aggressive, isolating, and anti-men. Unattractive, even. Why has the word become such an uncomfortable one? I am from Britain, and I think it is right I am paid the same as my male counterparts. I think it is right that I should be able to make decisions about my own body. I think it is right that women be involved on my behalf in the policies and decisions that will affect my life. I think it is right that socially, I am afforded the same respect as men. But sadly, I can say that there is no one country in the world where all women can expect to see these rights. No country in the world can yet say that they achieved gender equality. These rights, I consider to be human rights but I am one of the lucky ones. My life is a sheer privilege because my parents didnÃ¢â¬â¢t love me less because I was born a daughter. My school did not limit me because I was a girl. My mentors didnÃ¢â¬â¢t assume I would go less far because I might give birth to a child one day. These influencers were the gender equality ambassadors that made me who I am today. They may not know it, but they are the inadvertent feminists who are changing the world today. And we need more of those. And if you still hate the word, it is not the word that is important. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the idea and the ambition behind it, because not all women have received the same rights I have. In fact, statistically, very few have. In 1995, Hillary Clinton made a famous speech in Beijing about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Sadly, many of the things that she wanted to change are still true today. But what stood out for me the most was that less than thirty percent of the audience were male. How can we effect change in the world when only half of it is invited or feel welcome to participate in the conversation? Men, I would like to take this opportunity to extend your formal invitation. Gender equality is your issue, too. Because to date, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s role as a parent being valued less by society, despite my need of his presence as a child, as much as my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen young men suffering from mental illness, unable to ask for help for fear it would make them less of a man. In fact, in the UK, suicide is the biggest killer of men between 20 to 49, eclipsing road accidents, cancer and coronary heart disease. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen men made fragile and insecure by a distorted sense of what constitutes male success. Men donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the benefits of equality, either. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t often talk about men being imprisoned by gender stereotypes, but I can see that they are, and that when they are free, things will change for women as a natural consequence. If men donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be aggressive in order to be accepted, women wonÃ¢â¬â¢t feel compelled to be submissive. Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive. Both men and women should feel free to be strong. It is time that we all perceive gender on a spectrum, instead of two sets of opposing ideals. If we stop defining each other by what we are not, and start defining ourselves by who we are, we can all be freer, and this is what HeForShe is about. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s about freedom. I want men to take up this mantle so that their daughters, sisters, and mothers can be free from prejudice, but also so that their sons have permission to be vulnerable and human too, reclaim those parts of themselves they abandoned, and in doing so, be a more true and complete version of themselves. You might be thinking, Ã¢â¬Å"Who is this Harry Potter girl, and what is she doing speaking at the UN?Ã¢â¬ And, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a really good question. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been asking myself the same thing. All I know is that I care about this problem, and I want to make it better. And, having seen what IÃ¢â¬â¢ve seen, and given the chance, I feel it is my responsibility to say something. Statesman Edmund Burke said, Ã¢â¬Å"All that is needed for the forces of evil to triumph is for good men and women to do nothing.Ã¢â¬ In my nervousness for this speech and in my moments of doubt, I told myself firmly, Ã¢â¬Å"If not me, who? If not now, when?Ã¢â¬ If you have similar doubts when opportunities are presented to you, I hope those words will be helpful. Because the reality is that if we do nothing, it will take seventy-five years, or for me to be nearly 100 before women can expect to be paid the same as men for the same work. 15.5 million girls will be married in the next 16 years as children. And at current rates it wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be until 2086 before all rural African girls will be able to receive a secondary education. If you believe in equality, you might be one of those inadvertent feminists that I spoke of earlier, and for this, I applaud you. We are struggling for a uniting word, but the good news is, we have a uniting movement. It is called HeForShe. I invite you to step forward, to be seen and to ask yourself, Ã¢â¬Å"If not me, who? If not now, when?Ã¢â¬ Thank you very, very much. Reception Most of the public reception for Watsons speech has been positive: The speech got a thunderous standing ovation at U.N. headquarters; Joanna Robinson writing in Vanity Fair called the speech impassioned; and Phil Plait writing in Slate called it stunning. Some positively compared Watsons speech with Hilary Clintons speech to the U.N. 20 years earlier. Other press reports have been less positive. Roxane Gay writing in The Guardian, expressed her frustration that the idea of women asking for the rights that men already have only sells when delivered in the right package: a particular kind of beauty, fame, and/or self-deprecating brand of humor. Feminism should not be something that needs a seductive marketing campaign, she said. Julia Zulwer writing in Al Jazeera wondered why the United Nations picked a foreign, distant figure to be the representative for the women of the world. Maria Jose Gmez Fuentes and colleagues argue that the HeForShe movement as expressed in Watsons speech is an innovative attempt to connect with the experiences of many women, without focusing on the trauma. However, the HeForShe movement asks for the activation of action by the people who hold power. That, say the scholars, denies the agency of women as the subjects of violence, inequality, and oppression, instead giving men the ability to restore this lack of agency, to empower the women and offer them freedom. The will to eradicate gender inequality depends on the will of the males, which is not a traditional feminist principle. The MeToo Movement However, all of this negative reaction predates the #MeToo movement, and the election of Donald Trump, as of course did Watsons speech. There are some signs that feminists of all stripes and across the world are feeling rejuvenated by the open criticism and in many cases the fall of very powerful men because they abused that power. In March of 2017, Watson met and discussed gender equality issues with bell hooks, a powerful icon of the feminist movement since the 1960s. As Alice Cornwall puts it, shared outrage can offer a powerful basis for connection and solidarity that can reach across the differences that might otherwise divide us. And as Emma Watson says, If not me, who? If not now, when? Sources Brady, Anita. Taking Time between G-String Changes to Educate Ourselves: SinÃ ©ad OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, Miley Cyrus, and Celebrity Feminism. Feminist Media Studies 16.3 (2016): 429-44. Print.Cornwall, Andrea. Taking Off International Developments Straightjacket of Gender. Brown Journal of World Affairs 21.1 (2014-2015): 127-39. Print.Gmez Fuentes, MarÃ a JosÃ ©, Emma GÃ ³mez Nicolau, and Rebeca Maseda GarcÃ a. Celebrities, Gender-Based Violence and Womens Rights: Towards the Transformation of the Framework of Recognition. Revista Latina de ComunicaciÃ ³n Social, 71 (2016): 833-52. Print.Gay, Roxane. Emma Watson? Jennifer Lawrence? These Arent the Feminists Youre Looking For. The Guardian October 14, 2014. Web, accessed February 16, 2018.Hamad, Hannah, and Anthea Taylor. Introduction: Feminism and Contemporary Celebrity Culture. Celebrity Studies 6.1 (2015): 124-27. Print.Kennelly, Alexah. #Activism: Identity, Affiliation, and Political Discourse-Making on Twitter. The Arbutus Revi ew 6.1 (2015). Print. MacDonald, Fiona. Knocking Down Walls in Political Science: In Defense of an Expansionist Feminist Agenda. Canadian Journal of Political Science 50.2 (2017): 411-26. Print.Matos, Julie. Womens Rights in Public Address: A Feminist Rhetorical Critique. Colloquy 11 (2015): 1-22. Print.Plait, Phil. I Stand with Emma Watson. Slate September 23, 2014. Web, accessed February 16, 2018.Rottenberg, Catherine. Neoliberal Feminism and the Future of Human Capital. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 42.2 (2017): 329-48. Print.Zulver, Julia. Is Emma Watson the Right Woman For the Job? Al Jazeera September 24, 2014. Web, accessed February 16, 2018.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 2:01 PM
Friday, November 22, 2019
Is Online SAT/ACT Tutoring Right For You SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips You know you want tutoring, but do you go with in-person tutoring or online tutoring? Right now, I can practically hear the face some of you just made at the idea of online tutoring (yes, the face was so awful it actually made a noise). The world is full of dire warnings about the issues with online learning. Ã¢â¬Å"How can you possibly learn if youÃ¢â¬â¢re not in there in person with your teacher? WonÃ¢â¬â¢t you just slack off?Ã¢â¬ On the other side of the issue are people like me, whose reactions to hearing about online tutoring are more along the lines of "Woo! No travel time means I get to spend more time doing non-SAT/ACT-related things!" To help you get a better sense of whether or not online tutoring is right for you, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve blocked out the three areas in which there are significant differences between online and in-person tutoring. For each of these areas, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll explain when online tutoring is the right choiceÃ¢â¬ ¦and when it is not. feature image credit: Thought plus action by Ben Tesch, used under CC BY 2.0. Quality The first dimension to consider when choosing a method of tutoring is that of quality: what level of tutor do you want? This may seem to be a facetious question, since no matter the tutoring method you go with, you obviously you don't want a BAD tutor. It's important, however, when you choose a tutoring method to consider exactly what you want to get out of tutoring. We'll have an article up soon on how to find the best tutor for you. Do you want tutors to help you with new insights into test content, strategies, and more? If so, online tutoring is probably the best option for you. Why? Near, far, wherever you are in the world, online tutoring allows you to access high quality tutors. I'm going to be brutually honest: if you arenÃ¢â¬â¢t in a top city for education like New York or Boston, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s top tutors. This is even more true if you don't live near a top 5 city at all. Don't go with online tutoring ifÃ¢â¬ ¦ All you want is someone to monitor your test prep, making sure you're on schedule and accountable for doing your prep. In this case, you don't even really need a tutor - you need something more like a study buddy or babysitter. Or some sort of electronic surveillance. All you need is someone to explain answers to you better than answer keys can. If this is true for you, then it makes more sense for you to go with a high school student who's taken the test or understands the material. Time and Travel For online tutoring, the road not takenÃ¢â¬ ¦is every road. Consider the time wasted in travel for the average tutoring session, for both parent and child: a 30 minute drive to and from tutoring for student and parent plus either an additional trip from and to the tutor and/or 1 hour of waiting for the parent. At the end of the day: 1 hour wasted for student, 2 hours wasted for parent Online tutoring also means your tutor doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to travel, which will save money for you. How? Let's say I'm a tutor, and I have to drive half an hour to and from your 2 hour tutoring session. Even if I would normally charge $40/hr to tutor students online or at my house, I'm going to have to charge you $60/hr because I'm losing an hour of potential tutoring time to travel; rather than paying me $80 for a 2 hour tutoring session, you end up paying 50% more ($120/2 hours). If I tutor online, I can charge solely for tutoring time (without having to fold in the money I'd lose from time spent traveling). With online tutoring, you only pay for the tutoring you receive. Another perk is that no need to travel means that all your study materials at your fingertips Ã¢â¬â no more forgetting things at home (not that I have extensive experience in this subject area. Nope). Finally, online tutoring lets you have more flexibility when scheduling your tutoring - you don't have to worry about when you can get a ride, or when you can fit the travel time into your busy high school schedule. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t go with online tutoring ifÃ¢â¬ ¦ You have to travel to get high-speed internet access, and a tutor will come to you/is closer by. Both parent and student have time to spare Ã¢â¬â in that case, time spent traveling may not be an issue Suburban commute by pedrik, used under CC BY 2.0. One if by land, two if by sea, three if weÃ¢â¬â¢re just calling to let you know weÃ¢â¬â¢re running late Ã¢â¬Ëcause of the after-school traffic on the highway. Technology Online video chat software and hardware have advanced substantially from just 5 years ago. Videos look sharp and are live, making online sessions equal in quality to in-person tutoring. Some presentational software even lets tutors show equations and diagrams, which in turn can make SkypeTM tutoring even more effective than in-person tutoring. Case in point: itÃ¢â¬â¢s way easier to draw perfect circles and diagrams and manipulate equations on a computer than on paper with a pencil and compass. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t go with online tutoring ifÃ¢â¬ ¦ You have ZERO access to high speed internet. If you live in a rural area or some area where the only internet you have is dial-up (cabin in the woods in the foothills of the Sierra Nevadas, for example), online tutoring will probably not work for you. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a computer and/or have never before used a webcam. Even you have the technology, but are not comfortable with it, you may want to hold off on online tutoring. Not sure if the technology is going to be a barrier? Go with online tutoring that offers a full money-back guarantee for the first session and make sure there are no hiccups. The Bottom Line There are certainly legitimate reasons to dislike online tutoring. If you... DonÃ¢â¬â¢t care about quality DonÃ¢â¬â¢t have easy access to high speed internet ArenÃ¢â¬â¢t comfortable with the technology used ...then it makes sense not to get online tutoring. Barring these exceptions, however, online tutoring is equally as effective as, if not more effective than, traditional in-person tutoring. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re particularly confident of this at PrepScholar because of the quality of our tutors. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? How much should you pay for an SAT/ACT Tutor? Use our guidelines to help you form a reasonable budget. Not sure if you should go with a tutor or just do online prep? We have the article for you. For more on how to choose the best online prep, read our concise guide. Want to get serious about improving your SAT/ACT score? Our tutoring service is designed to be the most effective in the nation. We hire the best tutors from across the country. This is then paired with our exclusiveonline drillingprogramthat gives your tutor complete insight into your progress to design the most effective sessions. Think about what improving 160 points on your SAT, or 4 points on your ACT, can do for you. Learn more about tutoring now:
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 9:24 PM
Thursday, November 21, 2019
IDEO case study - Essay Example And the project manager would ensure their concepts could be achieved within budget and timeline. Set up large Ã¢â¬Å"Tech BoxÃ¢â¬ , contain the curiosities and interesting gadgets to inspire innovator. Designers could rummage through the stuffs and play with the switch, bottom on them. This motivates their creativity of putting the old things in new use. Built the culture that Ã¢â¬Å"High performing employees were rewarded by being given more challenging projects to leadÃ¢â¬ , this way encourage them to contribute more in every project as they always have the chance of being group leader once they have high ability. Organizational culture is an essential tool for innovation in any business setting. Consequently, it is true that in order to innovate there is a need to invest in building a strong culture that gives the right atmosphere to the employees and management to get involved. Mutual helping in workplace is a crucial aspect that foresees the success of businesses that depend on creativity in executing all the underlying projects. Encouraging-business culture enables workload sharing and collaborative help coming to the fore; lending expertise, experience and perspective that improve the quality and the execution techniques of different innovation ideas. For instance, IDEO has proved to have achieved a more impressive business culture. The IDEOÃ¢â¬â¢s culture has been able to build a help-friendly environment within its premises. The firm has employed more than 300 employees al with engineering educational backgrounds including its founder. The number is sufficient in the execution process of different processes within the stipulated budgets and timeframe. Additionally, as the firm deals with technical products they have introduced employee-customer interaction meeting to ensure their customers are satisfied. Such an aspect allows for acquisition of feedback from the product user, an aspect that is crucial for innovation and product improvement
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 3:04 AM
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Islam Today - Essay Example With the destruction and chaos that came with the end of the colonial rule after World War 2, much of the Islamic world became the victim of corrupt regimes, religious extremism, and foreign intervention. As Edward Said put it: Ã¢â¬Å"In part, of course, that is because the Middle East, the Arabs, and Islam have continued to fuel enormous change, struggle, controversy, and, as I write these lines, warÃ¢â¬ . The political instability so much a part of much of the Islamic world stems from the instable atmosphere of many of these countries (especially the Arab ones) and the fact that they are home to most of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s oil supply. The oil brings the interest of many Western governments to do things that, if the oil was not there, they would probably not do. To that of course must be added that most people have the negative image of Muslims as terrorists and extremists largely due to their negative depiction in the media. There is Ã¢â¬Å"a striking lack of clarity and an atmosphere of incomprehension that can only generate suspicion and fearÃ¢â¬ (Ramadan 2007, p. 23). This situation is not helped by the fact that so many scholars in the West believe that Muslims are by nature Ã¢â¬Å"radicalÃ¢â¬ and that Islam in general is incompatible with the West and/or globalization. In order combat these images and the potential conflict there is a lot people in Muslim countries could do. First and foremost Muslim governments should attempt to have their voice heard more clearly and more often in Western media. It is clear that Muslims have an image problem in the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s media. There should be an organized effort to reach out to people to show them that Islam has much more to it than radicals and terrorists.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 12:29 PM
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Socio-Economic Factors Influence Health and Well-Being Essay Introduction The social determinants of wellbeing are in charge of health disparities. For decreasing wellbeing disparities and enhancing wellbeing status of individuals, it is essential to perceive principle elements which are influencing wellbeing, that is, determinants of heath. Economic components have significant part in helping better wellbeing. Individuals with low salary are more defenceless against infections and incapacities. Health social determinants comprises of different variables that focus wellbeing and health, for example, socio-economic factors, sexual orientations, societies and instruction (Dolan, et al, 2008). A few gatherings of individuals are healthier than others. There is a connection in the middle of pay and wellbeing, and also they are solid indicators of wellbeing. Individuals with low monetary status have poor training, unemployment, work shakiness awful living up to expectations conditions and lower class occupations (Pappa, et al, 2009). Discussion Socioeconomic factors are regularly measured as a mix of instruction, salary, and occupation. At the point when seen through a social class lens, benefit, power, and control are accentuated. Besides, an examination of socioeconomic as an inclination or consistent variable uncovers disparities in access to and dissemination of assets. Socioeconomic factors are significant to all domains of behavioural and sociology, including exploration, practice, training, and promotion (Dolan, et al, 2008). Low Socioeconomic status and it relates, for example, lower instruction, neediness, and weakness, eventually influence our general public all in all. Imbalances in riches dissemination, asset circulation, and personal satisfaction are expanding in the United Kingdom and all inclusive. Society advantages from an expanded concentrate on the establishments of financial disparities and endeavours toÃ decrease the profound crevices in financial status in the United Kingdom. Behavioural and other sociology experts have the apparatuses important to study and distinguish methodologies that could allay these incongruities at mutually individual as well as communal levels (Pappa, et al, 2009). Equality Act 2010 is a demonstration of the Parliament of United Kingdom which producing results from October 2010 recommends an equivalent treatment in access to business and additionally private and open administrations. The demonstration list a set of ensured attributes which are recognized as take after: age, inability, sexual orientation reassignment, marriage and common association, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or conviction, sex and sexual introduction (Daniels, 2010). With respect to these attributes the Act give a unique security every each one encircling the all procurements with general evidences about regular qualities of separation. The reason of such part and distinctive security among the secured trademark is clarified on the premise of a prior hostile to separation law which was accordingly consolidated by the Equality Act including further component of insurance. Actually, the Act is shaped by various bits of other enactment which controlled the segregation law field. Thusly, were authoritatively actives the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, the Race Relations Act 1976 and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995? The demonstration supplants additionally various Regulations, in which the one pertinent in age separation field was the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations, which produce results beginning from 2006 until the reception of Equality act (Daniels, 2010). Poverty can be characterized in an unexpected way; those of conflicting conclusions on poverty will presumably additionally have unique suppositions on the reasons for neediness and the estimation of poverty. For instance Marxists and Feminists have philosophies focused around clash. Marxists accept that there is a class battle, and that the abuse made by private enterprise makes neediness. Womens activists accept that Patriarchy fabricates in social disparities and their belief systems are exhibited by the imbalances in pay in the middle of ladies and men. There is likewise research demonstrating that there are a larger number of ladies than men in neediness, and 93% of solitary folks in destitution are ladies. However clashing contentions are held by the New Right. Their supporters incorporateÃ Margaret Thatcher, Charles Murray and David Marshland and their philosophy is focused around the individual, and not society overall. The New Right accepts that it is through the peoples lethargy that destitution is brought on (Conley Page, 2010). Feminist accept that society is organized by Patriarchy, the thought that men are the most critical individuals in the public arena, and everything in the public eye is composed to accommodate the needs of men. This perspective is upheld by the conveyance of compensations; cases of this are managerial positions in extensive organizations where ladies get paid less for the same employment (McNay, 2013). Feminist will likewise contend that the profit framework has accepted that ladies are reliant upon men and this implies the welfare state capacities to keep up patriarchy. The cycle of neediness backings the view that destitution is brought on by the social imbalances that are incorporated with the structure o f society. This perspective is that when an individual is naturally introduced to a poor family, their chances in life of assisting themselves in the public arena are fundamentally decreased. This is the methodology in which destitution is transmitted starting with one era then onto the next. Cornwall, Harrison, Whitehead, 2007 recognize that a percentage of the hindrances that are connected with the poor like underachievement at school are connected with offspring of low salary families being marked as an issue. The social just approach acknowledges this cycle of destitution and the relative meaning of neediness. Their philosophy is that those at the base of the social classes are in burdened gatherings whose destitution bringing about social avoidance. Exploration completed by Dean, 2009 found that there are fundamental gatherings in the underclass, including the elderly, resigned, solitary folks and the long haul unemployed who are compelled to depend on deficient state advantages, which are excessively low. Women in poverty additionally have lessened access to healthcare administrations and assets. Somewhat because of the toll of childbearing, ladies are excessively beset with poor health results. Poor health ladies capacities to win pay, and, in this manner, is a key variable expanding and propagating family unit neediness (McNay, 2013). Expanding wellbeing administrations to ladies could, subsequently, relieve the feminization of destitution. The education of ladies and kids, particularly young ladies, can make more prominent open doors for ladies toÃ lift themselves out of neediness and expand their social position. Nations with solid sexual orientation separation and social chains of importance breaking point ladies right to gain entrance to essential instruction. Indeed inside the family unit, young ladies instruction is frequently yielded to permit male kin to go to class. Ethnic group For some ethnic minority bunches, viewpoints, for example, unemployment, living norms and welfare are significant issues. Ethnic gatherings depend on social incorporation to be included in, for instance, instruction and job, and for a few, this is hard in the event that you cant talk or talk little of the local dialect or are ignorant, as it will be harder to end up included and accepted in the public eye (Goldthorpe, 2009). It was likewise observed that 8% of the white populace and 27% of the Pakistani and Bangladeshi populace were unemployed. Adolescent Afro-Caribbean men matured 16 to 24 were discovered to be three times more inclined to be unemployed then those the same age and white. Under half of ladies from ethnic minorities are utilized contrasted with in excess of 65% of white ladies. Issues in deficient lodging among ethnic minorities are high. With a correlation of 2% of the white populace, 30% of Pakistanis and 47% of Bangladeshis living in packed lodging as per the 1991 accord, it is plain to see why those in ethnic minorities are more inclined to experience neediness then others. In a later investigation of families in Bradford, a stunning 65% of Bangladeshis and 45% of Pakistanis existed in packed lodging (Goldthorpe, 2009). The working class In the 1980s, amid the Thatcher time, the common labourers endured tremendously. They encountered serious cut in occupations, with mines, industrial facilities, boat building manufacturing plants and steel works being shut down. This created demolition and an increment in destitution inside the class. It particularly influenced the men because of sudden vulnerability in work and perplexity (Goldthorpe, 2009). On the other hand, this monstrous cut in employments for the working people implied that such places as Sheffield were supplanted with the administration and retail segment. Anyway these men had no aptitudes to have the capacity to take part in this industry and men thought that it was tricky to manage the truth theyÃ were sometimes being supplanted by ladies as the fundamental providers. This prompted a substantial increment in unemployment and neediness. Men were hesitant to learn new aptitudes keeping in mind the end goal to take an interest in the public eye and in this way turned to addictions, for example, drink and medications, calculates that can prompt neediness. Similarly as with the ethnic minorities, the average workers receive sub societies, for example, the opposition to class subculture found by Paul Willis. Working people young men in their last year at a thorough school were mulled over in a longitudinal study that tailed them into their first years in occupation. He observed that they received the same state of mind at function as they did at school, thinking that it more essential to have a snicker and disregard the establishmentÃ¢â¬â¢s standards and values then doing work and picking up capabilities. This lead to a circle in the regular workers as they emulated the same way as their guardians had formerly (Goldthorpe, 2009). This absence of satisfactory lodging, unemployment, higher wrongdoing and absence of healthcare and abilities leads now and again to pertinent destitution in the regular workers group. The reliance on the welfare state gives no energy or consolation to go out and look for vocation. The selection of the caretaker state should avert neediness and brings individuals up over the destitution line. Anyway it can be seen to really compound the situation. Conclusion Poverty is a long way from being nullified if anything it is expanding quickly and the retreat has pushed numerous families and people into destitution. Poverty is predominantly dictated by three elements Ã¢â¬Å"access to work, and the disappointment of government strategies to manage them. Access to work is dictated by class, sexual orientation and race. On the off chance that unemployed, individuals landing a position is not so much the solution for their issues in the event that they are going to be getting a low wage i.e. solitary folks and low salary families with youngsters. Standardized savings have neglected to haul individuals out of destitution, regularly abandoning them to adapt on least salaries. References Conley, H., Page, M. (2010). The gender equality duty in local government: The prospects for integration. Industrial Law Journal, 39(3), 321-325. Cornwall, A., Harrison, E., Whitehead, A. (2007). Gender myths and feminist fables: the struggle for interpretive power in gender and development.Development and Change, 38(1), 1-20. Daniels, K. (2012). Equality Act 2010. Dean, H. (2009). Critiquing capabilities: the distractions of a beguiling concept.Critical Social Policy, 29(2), 261-278. Dolan, P., Peasgood, T., White, M. (2008). Do we really know what makes us happy? A review of the economic literature on the factors associated with subjective well-being. Journal of economic psychology, 29(1), 94-122. Goldthorpe, J. H. (2009). Analysing social inequality: a critique of two recent contributions from economics and epidemiology. European Sociological Review, jcp046. McNay, L. (2013). Gender and agency: Reconfiguring the subject in feminist and social theory. John Wiley Sons. Pappa, E., Kontodimopoulos, N., Papadopoulos, A. A., Niakas, D. (2009). Assessing the socio-economic and demographic impact on health-related quality of life: evidence from Greece. International journal of public health,54(4), 241-249.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 1:00 AM
Thursday, November 14, 2019
100 Years of Changes Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This century has been one of many changes and incredible inventions. If a person was to think about it, this century has taken us from horseback to fuel-injected horsepower, from gaslights to sodium-vapor streetlights, from crystal radios to digital television, from compasses to GPS navigation systems, from wood burning stoves to microwave ovens, from Victrolas to DVD players and of course from hot air balloons to jet propulsion aircraft. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the past 100 years, we have made much advancement in all areas of society. The way people live has changed drastically just in the past century. Technology in particular has advanced more in these last 100 years then all previous time combined. For example, because of the research done by many innovative and dedicated individuals such as the Wright Brothers who were the first to sustain flight in a powered airplane, we are able to fly all over the world in a matter of hours in jet propelled pressurized aircraft. One hundred years ago, the thought of man flying in a machine was insane. The Wright Brothers helped to realize the dream of manned flight. Many years later, after the idea of manned flight becoming a reality, space exploration was the next step. In 1969, many people did not believe what happened. Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon. They posted an American flag, explored, collected space rocks and came back home. Many Americans did not be lieve that the technology existed to go that far. Today, several missions a year are launched using manned space shuttles that can be flown back to earth like gliders and reused on future space missions. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another example of the change in our technology over the last century is the change in the computer. In 1946, the first electronic computer called the ENIAC took up the space of a large room. Instead of using transistors and IC chips, the ENIAC used vacuum tubes. Compared to many computers now, the ENIAC is about as powerful as a small calculator. That may not be much, but it is a milestone because there would not be computers today if it were not for the ENIAC. As the years passed, the computer became smaller and more powerful. Today, more than half of the American population has a computer in their home. The personal computers today are thousands of times more powerful than the most powerful computers fifty years ago.
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 1:31 PM
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The Port Chicago Disaster On the 24 of July 1944, a memorandum was written from Captain W. S. Parsons, USN to Rear Admiral W. R. Purnell, IJSN. It was a report on the most destructive explosion on United States soil at that time. It was known as the Port Chicago Explosion. Captain Parsons worked in the Bureau of Ordnance as their Liaison Officer. So he was a prime candidate for the Job. Rear Admiral Purnell was the head of the Military Policy Committee. This memorandum was not intended to incarcerate people, determine its cause, nor report defects in the design of munitions depots.Its sole urpose was to collect data from the damage done and to find the exact time when the explosion happened. Captain Parsons determined the exact time based on seismic activity. He determined the time of detonation occurred at approximately between 2218-2244 on the 17 of July, 1944. It was found that approximately 2000 tons of high explosion were present on the dock at the time of the explosion. He also determined that light damage extended approximately 1500 yards from the explosion. This was minor damage but significant none the less.From ground zero and out to approximately 1000 feet it was determined that there was total destruction. However, at 1000 feet there were 3 civilians that remained alive; these were the closest survivors to the blast. This horrible disaster could have been prevented, only if certain factors were addressed accordingly. Within the confines of the munitions depot at port Chicago, there was racism. Akers states: The general classification test employed at this time placed the black ratings at Port Chicago Ã¢â¬Ëin the lowest twelfth of the Navy.According to their superiors, these men were unreliable, emotional, lacked capacity to understand or remember orders or instructions, were particularly susceptible to ass psychology and moods, lacked mechanical aptitude, were suspicious of strange officers, disliked receiving orders of any kind, particularly from white officers or petty officers, and were inclined to look for and make an issue of discrimination. For the most part, they were quite young and of limited education. 1 Black men, no matter what they scored on their classification test were put into these laborious work parties.If they scored high enough and there were empty billets, they would be transferred to another duty station. Therefore, there was a lack of good leaders to be had. This is a prime example of discrimination. Another example of racism at this munitions depot is that: Negroes in the Navvy don't mind loading ammunition. They Just want to know why they are the only ones doing the loading! They want to know why they are segregated; why they don't get promoted. 2 This stated that the racism was severe and the moral of the black sailors was very low.When morale was low, they started to ask question and the quality of work that and more prone to accidents. In addition, white officers were put in charge of these loadi ng parties and the black sailors did not like them. On top of that, the commanding officer, Captain Kinne, demanded a quota often tons per hatch per hour. These white officers deemed this goal, of the commanding officer, too high. But they had to fulfill it nonetheless or else their Jobs were on the line. Allen stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ officers sometimes raced working divisions against each other to speed up loading. 3 This caused workers to work at an unsafe speed and often times a shell would drop to the deck. Allen also stated: As Carr [the wench maintenance personnel] looked on, one man lost his grip on a shell; it dropped two feet and hit the deck with a thud. This showed that the rate at which they loaded ammunition onto the ships was unsafe. It made the possibility for a disaster very high. Still the Captain Kinne, the white officers had quotas to fill so they ignored these ominous signs and kept on pushing. Only if they could have slowed down the load rate, this disaster could have potentially been avoided.Another factor that could have prevented this disaster would be training. According to Julius J. Allen in his court martial trial he stated, Ã¢â¬Å"There was no training in ammunition handling. Ã¢â¬Å"5 These black Junior sailors were not trained to handle igh explosives, at the same time, the white officers were inadequately trained to supervise the loading process of high explosives. According to Freddie Meeks: When those bombs, slathered in grease, bounced down the plank, theyd bang into other bombs and everyone would pray to Almighty God. They made terrible sound.Sometimes, you thought they would explode. You'd almost have a heart attack to hear those bombs hitting togetherÃ¢â¬ ¦ I'd ask the lieutenant about it and he'd say don't worry. 6 The black sailors were weary of working with these explosives but were told by fficers that the larger munitions were not active and could not explode and that they would be armed with their fuses upon arrival at the combat theater. Because of the inadequate training of the white officers, they disillusioned the black sailors. The black sailors would believe them because of their lack of training with explosives as well.Therefore, this made for carelessness in the handling of the high explosives because all personnel apart of the loading parties did not know that the shells had the potential to explode because the training was negligent. Another aspect is the equipment used for handling of the high explosives. Handling of these larger explosives such as bombs and shells involved breaking individual munitions out with levers and crowbars from boxcars. The shells were packed in tightly with packing material, and they were heavy cylindrical shapes.The black sailors would roll them along the wooden pier, packing them into nets, lifting them with a winch and boom, lowering the bundle into the hold, and then dropping the individual explosives a short distance by hand into place. This series of ac tions was rough enough that naval shells were sometimes damaged and began leaking identification dye from their ballistic caps. This should have been a major warning that an explosion was explosives. Therefore, the explosives were more prone to damage because of the kind of crude equipment they were using.In addition, the powered winches used on cargo ships were used to speed up the handling of heavy loads. One winch was operated at each of the ship's five cargo holds. During loading operations, the winches were worked hard, requiring steady maintenance in order to remain operable. Winch brakes, a safety feature provided for stopping the load from falling if the winch's main power was lost, were not often used by a skilled winch operator s the load could be more quickly maneuvered using various power settings than by application of the brakes.Disused brakes sometimes seized up and stopped working. Additionally, the winches on the SS E. A. Bryan were steam-powered and showed signs of wear, even though the ship was only five months old. Equipment could have been a factor, but also the lack personal protective equipment was another factor. In many cases there was no personal protective equipment provided by the munitions depot. In an interview with Carl Tuggle, he stated that: If you wanted to wear gloves, you purchased them. That was the only way you had gloves o wear and to use while you were working.At night we were provided clothing to keep us from the elements on the dock at night because it was cold, but otherwise we supplied everything else ourselves. 7 Since the black sailors often were not promoted they remained stagnant with the position of Junior sailor. Therefore, they would not make a lot of money and not have money to buy proper personal protective equipment. This made the work parties more prone to accidents. It was so dangerous that even Commander Paul B. Cronk, head of a Coast Guard explosives-loading detail tasked with supervision of the orking dock, warned the Navvy that conditions were unsafe and ripe for disaster.The Navvy refused to change its procedures and Cronk withdrew the detail. The Navvy still put a blind eye to the munitions depot at Port Chicago therefore the disaster was waiting to happen. This may have been the most destructive explosion, but it was almost expected as Captain Parsons reported, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Port Chicago was designed for large explosions. Ã¢â¬Å"8 He stated that the munitions depot designed at Port Chicago was designed for large explosions and because of the design; there was a very minimal loss of life outside of the munitions depot.Nonetheless, it was eventually determined that 320 of the men on duty at the pier died instantly, and 390 civilians and military personnel were injured, many seriously. Surprisingly, this was a major loss for the black sailor community in which, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ roughly 15 percent of all the black casualties in the US Navvy during the entire war. Ã¢â¬Å"9 Shortly after the disaster, Port Chicago assigned white sailors to work alongside black sailors loading ammunition. This was the first step towards desegregation. To fix the lack of training, the Navvy instituted new training and safety procedures for the handling of high explosives.If and only if the Navvy listened to the Coast Guard Explosives-Loading detail supervising the loading of the explosives, the Port Chicago explosion would have never happened and this memorandum would have never been written. 1. Regina T. Akers, Ã¢â¬Å"The Port Chicago Mutiny, 1944,Ã¢â¬ in Naval Mutinies of the Twentieth Century: An International Perspective, ed. Christopher M. Bell and Bruce A. Elleman (London: Frank Cass, 2003), 200. 2. Robert L. Allen, Ã¢â¬Å"Final Outcome? Fifty Years after the Port Chicago Mutiny,Ã¢â¬ American Visions 9 (1994).http:// search. ebscohost. com.http://search. ebscohost. comhttp://montfordpointmarinesandhonor.blogspot.com/2013/09/http://search.epnet.com/Login.aspx?lp=login .asp&ref=https%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Egoogle%2Ecom%2Eua%2F&authtype=ip,uidhttps://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%88%E3%82%B7%E3%82%AB%E3%82%B4%E3%81%AE%E6%83%A8%E4%BA%8B
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 2:02 AM
Saturday, November 9, 2019
The Coca-Cola Company was established in 1886 in the United States. Today, the Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products are available in over 200 different countries. Each country contains its own demographics and other factors that influence the marketing planning and promotions for the Coca-Cola product lines. These factors vary by location and can include culture, customs, and even legal matters. The Coca-Cola Company has been able to successfully examine these factors and create marketing campaigns that have allowed the company to grow in leaps and bounds over the past 100 years. Global economic interdependence Global economic interdependence is when different economies rely upon one another and can include goods and service exchanges. Coca-Cola is one of the most famous soft drink brands in the world because they have successfully marketed their products across the globe. These foreign economies rely upon Coca-Cola products to stock their shelves to meet the consumers demand. With such a strong demand, countries would want the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product in local stores to increase sales and thus taxes collected. In order to get products to foreign markets, Coca-Cola is faced with trade restrictions and agreements. Restrictions can include tariffs which impose taxes on imported goods or quotas that limit the amount of certain product that is brought into the country (Kotler, Keller, 2012). These restrictions can lead to questions as to whether entering that foreign market is profitable. A high tariff could cut into profits while other trade restrictions may not allow a product to enter the market at all. A stiff market to enter may require a very detailed and successful marketing plan in order to reach the most potential consumers. A failed plan could result in the company paying more for the product to enter that market rather than the amount of money being made. Demographics and infrastructure Demographics must be examined prior to entering a foreign market. Household income, population, and age can all play a factor in a marketing plan. PoorÃ countries such as those in Africa may not be able to afford to purchase a product and therefore, would not be included in a marketing plan for a high priced item. Also, if there is a limited amount of infrastructure the product may not be able to be transported. Countries that lack infrastructure such as paved roads or electricity would become difficult markets for Coca-Cola to enter. Without roads or railroads, Coca-Cola would not be able to deliver their product to the consumers. Electricity is typically needed in order to keep the beverage chilled and to record sales transactions. A country lacking infrastructure will have a difficult time getting popular goods to their consumers. Cultural differences Cultural differences play a role in the marketing process. Different cultures will have different ideals and may even use products for different reasons. What may be acceptable in the American market may be a sign of disrespect in another. Knowledge of cultural differences can make or break a marketing campaign and also the entire company. For example, the Japanese commercials tend to have more animation and songs in the commercial. Also, the culture is also more advanced in technology so vending machines are more advanced in Japan than the ones we see here in America. Finally, different cultures may see certain products or ingredients as unhealthy. What may be delicious to consumers in China may be horrid to the taste buds of those in America. Social responsibility and ethics versus legal obligations Social responsibility and ethics are values that should be followed but not necessarily obligated to do so. On the other hand, legal obligations force a company to perform certain actions. For example, Coca-Cola is not legally obligated to set a certain price on their product. However, they are legally obligated to place nutritional and ingredient information on the product. As previously mentioned, different cultures play a role in marketing. What one culture may see as a social responsibility may be a legal obligation in another. As many know, Coca-Cola once contained the drug cocaine. Legally, cocaine is outlawed in the United States but may not be in other countries. What some may not know is that Coca-Cola still contains an extract from the coca leaves that is not classified as illegal (New York Times, 2013). In some cultures, it may be unethical to sell a product that has anyÃ derivatives from any mind altering plants. Political systems and the influence of international relations Political systems can decide whether to allow a product to enter their market or impose extreme conditions that must be met. In addition, international relations can play a part as to where a product goes. Currently, the United States has a trade restriction with Iran that limits what can be exchanged between the two countries. Iran, once considered an ally, is now an evil and thus trade restrictions are in place. Coca-Cola may find it difficult to get their product into this market through a legit trade agreement. If Coca-Cola was faced with the fact that nobody would be allowed to import their product, they would be able to develop a marketing plan for domestic use that would portray that they are the only country who gets to receive the product. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 prohibits bribes being paid to foreign officials to assist in obtaining or keeping business (U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, n.d.). This Act would prohibit Coca-Cola from bribing an Iranian official to allow them to export their product to the country. Because of this Act, large corporations can no longer pay foreign officials to keep their products in stores of countries that have banned them either by local or international law. These different laws and stipulations create barriers for a product to be introduced into foreign and domestic markets. Technology Advancements in technology have made marketing both easier and more difficult at the same time. Social media sites such as YouTube now promote products before the user can watch the video they intended to view. As technology advances, previous innovations become cheaper and open the doors for new consumers to obtain these products. As the amount of people who are able to access the internet increases, so does the amount of people that can view advertisements. One of the newest fads for technology is making more products Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ . Environmental friendly products are now the big rage and consumers will pay more for a product if it is deemed Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ . Advances in technology will eventually lead to more products being green and thusÃ creating a decline in the demand. Conclusion The Coca-Cola Company was established in 1886 in the United States. Today, the Coca-Cola CompanyÃ¢â¬â¢s products are available in over 200 different countries. Each country contains its own demographics and other factors that influence the marketing planning and promotions for the Coca-Cola product lines. Factors such as political influences, technology, and cultural differences all play a part on marketing. Differences in these factors can determine whether a product should be entered into the market. It is the responsibility of the manufacture, such as Coca-Cola, to perform their due diligence and evaluate its findings. References New York Times. (2013). How Coca-Cola Obtains Its Coca. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1988/07/01/business/how-coca-cola-obtains-its-coca.html U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. (n.d.). Spotlight on Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved from http://www.sec.gov/spotlight/fcpa.shtml
Posted by Noel Thatcher at 8:00 PM