Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Human Resource Management and Organizational Development †Free Sample

Question: Talk about how human asset the board can have any kind of effect by increasing the value of anorganisation. Answer: Presentation Human asset the executives (HRM) assumes a fundamental job in the accomplishment of the association. HRM centers around the workers of the organizatiReferencesand adequately uses its human funding to accomplish the objective of the association. In this way, HRM division assumes an essential job in the advancement of its assets by utilizing exceptionally gifted individuals who mirror the way of life of the organization in an extremely productive manner. The HR division additionally gives aptitude improvement preparing to decrease the hole that will assist them with defeating the authoritative difficulties and to increase upper hand (Hendry 2012). The full scopes of HR capacities incorporate key arranging, work examination and occupation structure, enlistment aptitude, remuneration and execution evaluation, labor arranging, staffing, worker inclusion, support in the administration, great representative and manager relationship are planned in a manner to accomplish the authoritative obj ective simultaneously limiting the expense of the organization. There is different expertise advancement programs for the new and existing workers to upgrade the range of abilities and increment the presentation of the representatives. Besides, the HR division likewise gives preparing to create authority abilities by actualizing instructing and input escalated programs that guarantee authoritative accomplishment in future. An all around oversaw association invests energy to use the HR and constructs the HR to guarantee development for the association (Bal et al. 2013). In this manner, to arrive at that objective the HRM ought to consider the individuals as resources not an expense to the association. So considering the HR as a benefit is a piece of human asset the executives that encourages the business to pick up benefit in since quite a while ago run. Joint effort At all the degrees of the hierarchical chain of command, the HR division and administrator work cooperatively to construct worker ability and competency. For example, the HR director controls the chief and supervisors - how to dole out representatives effectively to various occupation jobs in the association and helping the business to adjust to the changing condition of the association (Bondarouk and Rul 2013). Duty building The HR experts additionally prescribe the methodology to guarantee worker inclusion in the undertaking. This starts with enlisting the correct contender for the correct situation at the ideal chance to satisfy the prerequisite in the association in a most proficient way that could be available, consequently, building the stock of human cash-flow to diminish high whittling down rate in the organization (Jamali et al. 2015). Building limit The HRM group causes the organization to create upper hand that includes creating center competency for the business to offer the exceptional scope of products or administrations. For instance, Sonys ability in scaling down is a particular quality that has given an edge over the contenders. It isn't tied in with employing new gifts yet holding them in the association (Khattak et al. 2015). HR work and hierarchical turn of events Enlistment and preparing This is one of the significant duties of HRM to do arranging and figure the procedure to choose the ideal individual for the activity to guarantee accomplishment for the association and limit wastages. They structure the activity standards according to the activity job. Different errands with respect to the enrollment incorporate planning the activity plan and the extent of the activity alloted to the representatives and tending to the commitment of a worker. The HRM gives preparing to the workers according to the prerequisite of the business. Along these lines, the current staff will get the chance to hone the current abilities to create extraordinary aptitudes to fit in the new position job in the association (Longoni et al.2014). Execution Appraisals HRM urges the worker to work as indicated by their potential for the group and give them recommendations to improve the range of abilities. The HRM group speaks with the staff all the time and gives input to improve their presentation in regard to the specific occupation jobs. It encourages them to shape a layout of their normal employment works in a more clear manner along these lines managing them to execute the objectives in an increasingly effective manner. The HRM structures a proficient evaluation framework and impetus intend to inspire the representatives to turn out to be progressively beneficial for the association (Gelens et al. 2013). Making a suitable work climate The presentation of the gathering is for the most part influenced by the representatives and the work culture that wins at the working environment. The HR division makes a benevolent workplace for the worker to upgrade their exhibition. An all around lit up, protected and clean office and collaboration among workers increment the activity fulfillment of the representative (Schalk et al. 2015). Overseeing debates In an association, debates emerge from the business (the board) and representative on different issues that incorporate wages, reward, working condition, execution impetus and numerous different things. The human asset office acts a specialist to understand these issues to reach to a neighborly arrangement in an effective way. The complaint redressal group handles the complaints of the representatives to concoct the answer for resolve them effectively (Beer et al. 2015). Creating Public Relations To set up a decent open connection is one of the significant duties of HR directors. They compose classes and conference to fabricate the relationship with different divisions. Notwithstanding that, the HR division assumes a critical job in building up the promoting and marketable strategy of the association. In this manner, the association ought to have a legitimate HRM strategy to deal with these exercises all the time. Accordingly, the group invests huge energy to build up a viable HR framework to guarantee development and accomplishment of the association (Shaw et al. 2013) HR administrator encourages the group to accomplish the crucial vision of the organization by detailing and executing systems, in this manner, helping the association to make progress. HRM procedures helps the worker and the group to perform better. The HR chief guarantees that there is an immediate association between the associations reason and the approaches and techniques of the organization. The HRM with its vital methodology is the directing powers that give the working structure and controls the framework and help to make progress. In this way, it tends to be said that the motivation behind HR is to use human potential to guarantee the high hierarchical proficiency so as to accomplish authoritative objectives (Shaw et al. 2013). Henceforth, the hierarchical achievement is reliant on the HRM division of the endeavors by guaranteeing Enlistment and determination of the qualified up-and-comer Upgrading the profitability Diminishing expense Successfully guaranteeing the legitimate consistence HRM fills the need by Adjusting the individual objective to hierarchical objective Adding to association's proficiency and improved profitability Concentrating on the progression arranging in the association Building up the ability the executives programs Advancing the vocation making arrangements for the association Arranging the authoritative advancement programs Dealing with the change the board programs Assumes a fundamental job for merger and procurement systems of the organization Overseeing execution evaluation projects and remuneration counsel Concentrating on creating associations center competency Assuming a noteworthy job in changing the group culture Arranging a viable preparing and advancement programs To expand the authoritative execution, the HRM must actualize key arranging in dynamic, in upgrading the association and the work the board guaranteeing money related responsibility to run the whole framework in a progressively productive manner to bring accomplishment for the group (Truss et al. 2013). End The above conversations reflect how the association achievement is identified with the human asset the executives work. The HR office assumes a significant job in accomplishing the objectives of the association by impacting the exercises in a most critical manner. In this way, the groups achievement relies upon the exhibition of the human asset division. HRM and its key methodology decide the strategies to enlist, create and hold workers in the association and help the association to make progress. HRM encourages the workers to expand representative fulfillment levels, and execution and the efficiency of the venture. This gives an upper hand and adds to the accomplishment of the association. HRM gives the director the devices and aptitude to improve the presentation of the workers. By using the apparatuses and working intimately with the HR experts, capacities and possibilities of the representatives can be expanded and authoritative achievement can be guaranteed. Hence, the job of H RM has expected huge significance in the most recent decades. Therefore, it has been understood that the compelling HR work has the noteworthy effect on the line and staff elements of the association to guarantee accomplishment for the association. References Bal, P.M., Kooij, D.T. also, De Jong, S.B., 2013. How do formative and accommodative HRM improve representative commitment and duty? The job of mental agreement and SOC strategies.Journal of Management Studies,50(4), pp.545-572. Lager, M., Boselie, P. furthermore, Brewster, C., 2015. Back to the future: ramifications for the field of HRM of the multistakeholder point of view proposed 30 years ago.Human Resource Management,54(3), pp.427-438. Bondarouk, T. what's more, Rul, H., 2013. The vital estimation of e-HRM: results from an exploratory examination in an administrative organization.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,24(2), pp.391-414. Gelens, J., Dries, N., Hofmans, J., and Pepermans, R. 2013. The job of apparent authoritative equity in forming the results of ability the board: An exploration agenda.Human Resource

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Movie Summary Gattaca Essay Example For Students

Film Summary Gattaca Essay The film â€Å"Gattaca† by Andrew Niccol is a film set sooner rather than later. The film is essentially about Vicente, who is one of the last normally conceived babies. When conceived they are naturally brought into the world with infections and may kick the bucket sooner, in Vincent’s case his future was 30 years and 2 monts. His main dream since he was a young man was to go up to the space. He met a person named Jerome, a handicap who had been in a fender bender, concurs with Vicente to take his personality so as to enter the Gattaca Corporation. There was numerous observable subjects during the film, anyway the most grounded one were flawlessness, potential and assurance. First topic present in the film was potential. As I would like to think, potential is the principle subject during the whole film. With the end goal for Vincent to expand his latent capacity, he was eager to get quality adjustment. Society related in-substantial as clumsy and they would not acknowledge them. Indeed, even the police did all that they could when they discovered there was an in-legitimate working at the Gattaca. They couldn't stand that an in-substantial could turn out to be superior to the rest. Be that as it may, a few models were appeared during the film where individuals do surpass their latent capacity and one of them was when Vincent beat his sibling and swimming. Another subject present in the film was potential. As I would like to think, potential is the principle subject during the whole film. With the end goal for Vincent to build his latent capacity, he was happy to get quality adjustment. Society related in-legitimate as clumsy and they would not acknowledge them. Indeed, even the police did all that they could when they discovered there was an in-substantial working at the Gattaca. They couldn't stand that an in-substantial could turn out to be superior to the rest. Be that as it may, a few models were appeared during the film where individuals do surpass their latent capacity and one of them was when Vincent beat his sibling and swimming. Last, assurance assumes another job during the film. With the goal for him to have a superior life he needs to have assurance. Indeed, even since he was a young man, he would turn upward in the sky and sooner or later in the film he even said that one day his will make up there. He wouldn't imagine that he was unique and was determinate to demonstrate everybody that he was tantamount to them if not stunningly better. When Vincent and his sibling had their last swim race, he propped up even idea his sibling halted. Sooner or later he was bringing down while Vincent spared him. He realized that he has the solidarity to beat his and he never thought back. The fundamental thought of that scene was that people’s soul will over guideline physical flawlessness. All in all, potential and assurance was the regular subjects appeared in the film where Vincent accomplished his fantasy to go up the space. Indeed, even idea Vincent was conceived as an in-legitimate, I really accept he beat the hereditary building with the goal for him to become somebody that he needed to be regardless of whether his family didn't accept he could ever make it up to space. One exercise I gained from the film was that regardless of what obstructions we have before us, we could generally circumvent them so as to accomplish our fantasies.

Sunday, August 9, 2020

Course Correction

Course Correction Pencils have erasers for a reason: everyone makes mistakes, everyone makes bad decisions. To err is human; therefore, one of the most important skills we can develop is course correction. It’s crucial to recognize when a mistake is a mistake, to learn from our indiscretions, and then to change course and move forward a better person. Life is a test, and sometimes we pick the wrong answerâ€"no big deal, right? Unfortunately we often pick the same wrong answer over and over, thereby avoiding any other possible outcome, and therefore avoiding the correct answer. It’s strangeâ€"we wouldn’t’ve done this on our old school tests: we never filled in the answer bubble on our Scantron sheet just to erase it and fill in the same bubble again and again and again. In daily life we do this all the time: we mess up and then take the same path, which leads to the same dead end. And then we do it again. And again. And again. To make things more complicated, life’s answers change as we get older; therefore, yesterday’s right answer may not be today’s right answer. To live enriched, fulfilled lives, we must hone our ability to course correct: if you intelligently assess where you are, where you’re headed, and make the necessary tweaks to move forward, you’ll be fine; if you keep filling in the same bubble, you’re in for a future of bad marks. Read this essay and 150 others in our new book, Essential.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Raoults Law Calculating Vapor Pressure of Volatile Solutions

This example problem demonstrates how to use Raoults Law to calculate the vapor pressure of two volatile solutions mixed together. Raoult's Law Example What is the expected vapor pressure when 58.9 g of hexane (C6H14) is mixed with 44.0 g of benzene (C6H6) at 60.0 Â °C?Given:Vapor pressure of pure hexane at 60 Â °C is 573 torr.Vapor pressure of pure benzene at 60 Â °C is 391 torr. Solution Raoults Law can be used to express the vapor pressure relationships of solutions containing both volatile and nonvolatile solvents. Raoults Law is expressed by the vapor pressure equation:Psolution ÃŽ §solventP0solventwherePsolution is the vapor pressure of the solutionÃŽ §solvent is mole fraction of the solventP0solvent is the vapor pressure of the pure solventWhen two or more volatile solutions are mixed, each pressure component of the mixed solution is added together to find the total vapor pressure.PTotal Psolution A Psolution B ...Step 1 - Determine the number of moles of each solution in order to be able to calculate the mole fraction of the components.From the periodic table, the atomic masses of the carbon and hydrogen atoms in hexane and benzene are:C 12 g/molH 1 g/mol Use the molecular weights to find the number of moles of each component:molar weight of hexane 6(12) 14(1) g/molmolar weight of hexane 72 14 g/molmolar weight of hexane 86 g/molnhexane 58.9 g x 1 mol/86 gnhexane 0.685 molmolar weight of benzene 6(12) 6(1) g/molmolar weight of benzene 72 6 g/molmolar weight of benzene 78 g/molnbenzene 44.0 g x 1 mol/78 gnbenzene 0.564 molStep 2 - Find mole fraction of each solution. It doesnt matter which component you use to perform the calculation. In fact, a good way to check your work is to do the calculation for both hexane and benzene and then make sure they add up to 1.ÃŽ §hexane nhexane/(nhexane nbenzene)ÃŽ §hexane 0.685/(0.685 0.564)ÃŽ §hexane 0.685/1.249ÃŽ §hexane 0.548Since there are only two solutions present and the total mole fraction is equal to one:ÃŽ §benzene 1 - ÃŽ §hexaneÃŽ §benzene 1 - 0.548ÃŽ §benzene 0.452Step 3 - Find the total vapor pressure by plugging the values into the equation:PTotal ÃŽ §hexaneP0hexane ÃŽ §benzeneP0benzenePTotal 0.548 x 573 torr 0.452 x 391 torrPTotal 314 177 t orrPTotal 491 torr Answer: The vapor pressure of this solution of hexane and benzene at 60 Â °C is 491 torr.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Commonly Confused Words Bathos and Pathos

The words bathos and pathos are related in meaning as well as in sound, but theyre not interchangeable. Definitions The noun bathos refers to an abrupt and often ludicrous transition from the elevated to the ordinary (a form of anticlimax), or to an excessively sentimental demonstration of pathos. The word bathos  (adjective form, bathetic) almost always has a negative connotation. The noun pathos  (adjective form, pathetic) refers to a quality in something experienced or observed that evokes sympathy and a feeling of sorrow. Examples The director had clearly decided to confront us with the gruesome detail of the massacre, but the sight of artificial dismembered limbs, human torsos dangling in  trees, and blood-stained cavalry men riding about brandishing human legs and heads,  that all clearly had the weight of polystyrene, made his intentions ridiculous.  The entire cinema burst out laughing as the film  descended into bathos. We expected the gruesome and got the bizarre instead.(John Wright, Why Is That So Funny? Limelight, 2007)The  pathos  of the  Frankenstein  legend is that the monster has some traits of humanity remaining within him.Mr. Moretti has a habit of crossing the line from pathos to bathos, but he imbues this  movie [Mia Madre] with such honest sentiment  that he can evoke a lifetime of feeling with just the shot of an empty chair.(Manohla  Dargis, New York Film Festival Walks the Tightrope Between Art and Commerce. The New York Times, September 24, 2015) Usage Notes Dont confuse bathos with pathos. Bathos, the Greek word for depth, is a descent from the sublime to the ridiculous. You commit bathos if, for example, you ruin a stately speech by ending it with some tasteless anecdote. The adjective is bathetic, like pathetic, the adjective for pathos, the Greek word for suffering. Bathos is commonly misused as the equivalent of sloppy sentimentality.(John B. Bremner, Words on Words: A Dictionary for Writers and Others Who Care About Words. Columbia University Press, 1980)Pathos is the quality of something, such as speech or music, that evokes a feeling of pity or sorrow: The mother told her tale with such pathos that tears came to the eyes of many present. Bathos is either insincere pathos or a descent from the sublime to the ridiculous: The play was rather moving in places, but the episode where the two take a shower together was pure bathos.(Adrian Room, Dictionary of Confusable Words. Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000)Pathos occurs when a feeling of pity, compassion or tenderness towards a character or situation is evoked in the reader. Pathos will be usually felt towards a hero, an admired character or a victim. The group victims of a disaster will also frequently engender pathos. The undeserved or early death of a character is a subject for pathos. If we have cried over some incident in a book we have experienced pathos. Think of the death of Ophelia in Hamlet and notice how it is Gertrudes speech about a young girls death which is the means by which Shakespeare induces pathos...The writer must always strike a careful balance with such scenes if pathos is to be achieved. Even good writers can sometimes go over the top into bathos, when an incident or character that should have aroused compassion veers toward the absurd or ludicrous. Dickens in The Old Curiosity Shop clearly meant the death of Little Nell to arouse pathos and for the most part it did with his contemporary readers. Many modern readers though find the overblown descri ption almost laughable.(Colin Bulman, Creative Writing: A Guide and Glossary to Fiction Writing. Polity Press, 2007) Practice (a) The pat ending of Beauty and the Beast disregards the dark undercurrent of genuine _____ and suffering that had made the Beast so endearing.(b) Don Gibsons . . . specialty  became the tearjerkin country ballad, although many of his recordings were so drenched in self-pity that they crossed the line into pure _____.(Richard Carlin,  Country Music: A Biographical Dictionary. Routledge, 2003) Scroll down for answers below: Answers to Practice Exercises: (a) The pat ending of  Beauty and the Beast  disregards the dark undercurrent of genuine  pathos  and suffering that had made the Beast so endearing.(b) Don Gibsons . . . specialty  became the tearjerkin country ballad, although many of his recordings were so drenched in self-pity that they crossed the line into pure  bathos.(Richard Carlin,  Country Music: A Biographical Dictionary. Routledge, 2003)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Natural Resources of Bangladesh Free Essays

string(44) " machinery is gradually gaining popularity\." Bangladesh is largely ethnically homogeneous. Indeed, its name derives from the Bengali ethno-linguistic group, which comprises 98% of the population. Bengalis, who also predominate in the West Bengal province of India, are one of the most populous ethnic groups in the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Natural Resources of Bangladesh or any similar topic only for you Order Now Variations in Bengali culture and language do exist of course. There are many dialects of Bengali spoken throughout the region. The dialect spoken by those in Chittagong and Sylhet are particularly distinctive. In 2009 the population was estimated at 156 million. Religiously, about 90% of Bangladeshis are Muslims and the remainders are mostly Hindus. Bangladesh became one of the large nation states in 1971when it seceded from Pakistan. Prior to the creation of Pakistan in 1947, modern-day Bangladesh was part of ancient, classical, medieval and colonial India. Since independence, the government has experienced periods of democratic and military rule. The founding leader of the country and its first president was Sheikh Mujibur Rahman. His daughter Sheikh Hasina Wazed is currently the prime minister, as leader of the Awami League. Physical features of Bangladesh Location size Bangladesh is situated in southern Asia, on the delta of the 2 largest rivers on the Indian subcontinent—the Ganges and Jamuna (Brahmaputra). It borders with India in the west, north, and east, with Burma (also known as Myanmar) in the southeast, and with the Bay of Bengal in the south. The country’s area is 144,000 square kilometers (55,598 square miles), and it is divided into 6 administrative divisions (Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Barisal, Rajshai and Sylhet) and 4 major municipal corporations (Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna and Rajshahi). Comparatively, the territory of Bangladesh is slightly greater than the state of New York. Bangladesh’s capital city, Dhaka, is located in the central part of the country. Bangladesh occupies the eastern part of the Bengal region (the western part of the region is occupied by the Indian state of West Bengal), which historically was part of the great civilizations in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent. Climate of Bangladesh Bangladesh has a tropical monsoon-type climate, with a hot and rainy summer and a dry winter. January is the coolest month with temperatures averaging near 26 deg C (78 d F) and April the warmest with temperatures from 33 to 36 deg C (91 to 96 deg F). The climate is one of the wettest in the world. Most places receive more than 1,525 mm of rain a year, and areas near the hills receive 5,080 mm ). Most rains occur during the monsoon (June-September) and little in winter (November-February). Bangladesh is subject to devastating cyclones, originating over the Bay of Bengal, in the periods of April to May and September to November. Often accompanied by surging waves, these storms can cause great damage and loss of life. The cyclone of November 1970, in which about 500,000 lives were lost in Bangladesh, was one of the worst natural disasters of the country in the 20th century. Bangladesh has warm temperatures throughout the year, with relatively little variation from month to month. January tends to be the coolest month and May the warmest. In Dhaka the average January temperature is about 19Â °C (about 66Â °F), and the average May temperature is about 29Â °C (about 84Â °F). Surface water inflow and river system of Bangladesh Surface Water made up of rivers, streams, lakes, beels and ponds. In other words, all waters on the surface of the earth including fresh and salt water, ice and snow. In Bangladesh, rainfall and trans-boundary river flows are the main sources of surface water. Bangladesh has an average annual surface flow of about 1,073 million acre feet (MAF), of which about 870 MAF (93%) are received from India as inflow and rest 203 MAF (7%) as rainfall. This water is enough to cover the entire country to a depth of 9. 14m. About 132 MAF (65% of rainfall and 12% of total) are lost in evaporation (114. 30 cm) and the rest flows to the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh has about 700 rivers ncluding tributaries and distributaries, which crisis-cross the landscape and creates about 98,000 ha of inland water bodies and more than 24,000 km streams or water channels. Of these, 54 rivers, including the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, originate from India and 3 originate from Myanmar. About 93% catchment areas of these 58 rivers are beyond Bangladesh, while only 7% is in Bangladesh. During the dry season when irrigation is necessary, these rivers either flow at their lowest levels or become dry in the Bangladesh portion, due to upstream barrages, built in the upper riparian region. The principal rivers of Bangladesh are the Padma, the Megna, The Jamuna, and the Brahamaputra. The Dhaleswari and the Karnafuli. Besides, there are many small rivers like the Buriganga, the Sitallakya, the Gumti, the Tista, the Atrai, the Kortoa, The Mohananda, the Madhumati and many others. They have tributaries as well. Improtance and usefulness: The rivers are of great help to us. Our agriculture depends on the rivers. The rivers supply water and make the land fertile by depositing silt. Thus they help to produce paddy, jute, wheat and many other crop. The rivers also help our irrigation. Our rivers are a great source of wealth. The rivers abounded in fishes. Fish is an important food of our country. Many people earn their livelihood by catching fish in the rivers. Our rivers are important means for transport too. Boats, launches, steamers ply through them in all seasons. They carry passengers and goods from one place to another. These rivers also help our trade and commerce. Pattern of agriculture Bangladesh is primarily an agrarian economy. Agriculture is the single largest producing sector of economy since it comprises about 30% of the country’s GDP and employing around 60% of the total labor force. The performance of this sector has an overwhelming impact on major macroeconomic objectives like employment generation, poverty alleviation, human resources development and food security. Agricultural holdings in Bangladesh are generally small. Through Cooperatives the use of modern machinery is gradually gaining popularity. You read "Natural Resources of Bangladesh" in category "Papers" Rice, Jute, Sugarcane, Potato, Pulses, Wheat, Tea and Tobacco are the principal crops. The crop sub-sector dominates the agriculture sector contributing about 72% of total production. Fisheries, livestock and forestry sub-sectors are 10. 33%, 10. 11% and 7. 33% respectively. Bangladesh is the largest producer of Jute. Rice being the staple food, its production is of major importance. Rice production stood at 20. 3 million tons in 1996-97 fiscal year. Crop diversification program, credit, extension and research, and input distribution policies pursued by the government are yielding positive results. The country is now on the threshold of attaining self-sufficiency in food grain production. Types of forest Forestry is a sub-sector of agriculture in Bangladesh, which makes a contribution to the national economy and is supposed to promote ecological stability. Although Bangladesh is amazingly green, it is a forest-poor country. Most of its public forestlands are located in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, greater Khulna district, greater Sylhet district, Dhaka, Mymensingh and Tangail districts. Half of Bangladesh does not have public forests at all. Homestead forests seen around almost all households are important for the rural communities. They meet a significant portion of fuel wood need and house construction materials, among other things. Although it is estimated that Bangladesh has approximately 6% of its land covered with public forests, actually very little of natural forests is left today except for those in the Sundarbans in Khulna. The plantations are not to be considered as forests. The three main types of public forests are: (i) Tropical evergreen or semi-evergreen forest in the eastern districts of Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, Sylhet, and the Chittagong Hill Tracts region; (ii) moist or dry deciduous forests also known as sal (Shorea robusta) forests located mainly in the central plains and the freshwater areas in the northwest region; and (iii) Tidal mangrove forests along the coast – the Sundarbans in the southwest of the Khulna and other mangrove patches in the Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar and Noakhali coastal belt. Mineral resources Although Bangladesh is a small country, it has a number of mineral resources such as natural gas, oil, coal, hard rock, limestone, white clay, glass sand and mineral sand. At present, natural gas is the only mineral commodity significantly contributing to the national economy. More than 90% of the country’s energy needs are met by gas, total reserves of whi ch are 21. 35 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and 12. 43 TCF, respectively. Huge reserves of hard rock (granodiorite, quartzdiorite, gneiss) and coal in northwest Bangladesh will help, in the near future, to meet the growing demand for construction materials and energy for the ever-growing population. Total coal reserves are 1753 million tons (MT), the market value of which is more than US$110 billion. Hard rock reserves are 115 million tons, valued at over US$3 billion. Fully fledged extraction of these resources would help to alleviate the country’s poverty through industrialization. It is expected that coal will soon be extracted on a commercial basis, of which 70 to 80% will be used in power generation. The mineral resources so far found in Bangladesh are meagre in comparison to its high population. To meet the growing demand of the population, more mineral resources need to be discovered and developed, otherwise sustainable development cannot be achieved. However, it is difficult for developing countries like Bangladesh to carry out the necessary activities for exploration and exploitation of hidden mineral resources without foreign assistance. This is a major drawback for Bangladesh. To progress towards an endurable sustainable society, a nation such as Bangladesh must give priority to the development of its existing mineral resources, which can play a major role in helping to reshape the country’s socio-economic infrastructure. Industrial set up In 1972, the year after its establishment, Bangladesh nationalized most of its industries and set up nine corporate conglomerates to oversee the state-owned enterprises (SOEs). The lack of commercial orientation inhibited investment and growth, including in the traditional jute industry, and the emerging leader, the garment industry. From the mid-1980s, the government shifted to encouraging private investment, but the industrial sector remained closely regulated. In 1991, in the post-Cold War international environment, and with the end of military rule, the government inaugurated a new Industrial Policy planning investment liberalization, the interim restructuring of several large parastatals, as well as the gradual privatization of public enterprises in all but the airways, railways, and mining sectors. Political resistance to privatization was very strong, and in the early 1990s restructuring resulted in some output decline. With a new government, in the period 1996–2001, 33 SOEs were sold by the state, but the Economist Intelligence Unit reported that these were smaller operations, and that the divestments did not significantly lessen the government’s dominance of the industrial sector. Recent discoveries of large natural gas reserves and plans for new power plants throughout the country were slated to boost industrial growth in 2000 and beyond. However, as of late 2002, plans for the development of natural gas resources continue to be delayed by political rows over the participation of foreign companies. Density and distribution of population In 2010, Bangladesh was estimated to be one of the ten most highly populated countries with an estimated population of just fewer than 160 million. This makes the population density of about 875 people per sq km (2,267 people per sq mi) higher than other countries. Most of the population is young with about 60 percent under the age of 25, with only about 3 percent over the age of 65 (life expectancy is 61 years). Twenty percent of the population was deemed to be urban in 1998, making population of Bangladesh predominantly rural. Bengalis make up the majority of population of Bangladesh. They are descendants from immigrant Indo-Aryans who came from the west and intermarried with various Bengal groups. The minority in Bangladesh is comprised of several groups, the Chakma and Mogh (Mongoloid people who live in the Chittagong Hill Tracts District), the Santal (migrants from India) and the Biharis (Muslims who came from India). Conclusion Though Bangladesh is a small country but it has great prospects. It can use its vast population as human resources. It is a beautiful country. It can make an effective use of it to attract tourists. To overcome obstacles to gain success in all sectors all people and govt. should be cooperative. Corruption, political resentment, indiscipline, dishonesty should be reduced by applying laws. How to cite Natural Resources of Bangladesh, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Discussion on Human Resource Management-Free-Samples for Students

Question: Discuss about the Human Resource Management. Answer: Introduction: The objective of this review is to cover the theoretical and analytical aspects of human resource management in projects. The uncertainty and dynamics in HR of the present organizations have been moving tremendously towards the radical dimension. This raises the interests to review the topic. Ten academic sources are 5 non-academic sources are retrieved from online to make a clear understanding of the topic. The study critically assesses those materials by providing logical sequences. It has identified the controversies, themes and trends. The strengths and weakness are also found. The main implications of the findings are addressed. The gaps in knowledge are also discussed. The research is done using patterns like tables highlighting the primary information. Discussion on human resource management: Identification of themes Themes Descriptions The social HR and crowd sourcing coming into their own According to Anderson (2013), after a couple of years on cutting edge, the crowd-sourcing is moving in mainstream. The popular organizations have been aware of the advantages of business ideas of crowd sourcing, performance reviews and leveraging the social media for achieving business aims. Occurrence of true culture management The rise of big data has been helping in controlling and monitoring culture on various layers of organizations. By the system consolidations and gathering and repurposing insights of data over attitudes and behaviors, the HR has been managing and quantifying culture (Shrm.org, 2017). Centralization and consolidation in cloud They have been noting for the organizations. However Armstrong and Taylor (2014) argue that this has been a rising trend with the acquisitions, partnerships and mergers helping in leveraging potentiality over the organizational level. Various HRs have been adopting centralized flexible SaaS cloud-based solutions. The HRs has been going for systems to share, partner and integrate information with each others. Security of mobility Flexible time and work have been a theme that is on rise. The employees have been performing through mobile devices from distant locations. As more organizations have been adopting the policy of bring-your-device and relying upon mobile communications, the confidentiality, security and communication has been the topmost priority (Storey 2014). Uncertainties and big changes in the healthcare coverage Chua et al. researched that, various organizations have been unsure regarding the handing of upcoming changes. The health care has been a hot button theme for the employees and the employee-alike. This has been expected to be turn critical. In several cases it could be utilized as the competitive differentiator for the recruitment. Identification of trends Trends Descriptions Globalization and its influences The employees should possess the knowledge of working regarding the culture and languages in terms of laws, customs, morals and values of the country hosting. Work-Force diversity: As said by Hoch and Dulebohn (2013), the HRM should train people of various age groups, sexes and ethnic backgrounds for managing and dealing under diversified workplace. Changing the requirements of skills The practitioners of HRM ought to communicate about this with the community leaders and educators. The strategic HR planning would lead to weigh the shortages and deficiencies of skills. They need to devise proper training and short term programs for bridging deficiencies and skill gaps (Resources, 2017). Corporate downsizing The HRM should assure appropriate communication during this time. They should minimize the negative influences of rumors. They must ensure that the people have been informed regarding the factual data. They should also deal with the real layoff (Bna.com, 2017) Programs for continuous improvement The HR should prepare people to adopt changes. This needs extensive and extensive communications. This must deal with the occurrence of changes, expectations and effect over employees. The work-process for re-engineering As per as the study done by Kerzner (2013), the HRM should have methods for the employees in getting proper directions regarding what to perform and what to desire. The assistance to deal with conflict permeating the organization is also considered. To generate the benefits of this, the HRM requires offering training of skills to their employees. Contingent workforce As this strategic decision is made the HRM should be the active partner in the discussions. As the temporary workers are brought into scenario HRM must have the responsibility to quickly adapt those people into the organization. The HRM also needs to provide some thought regarding its attraction in the quality temporaries (Workforce Magazine, 2017) Mass Customization The HR needs to take the marketing tools across the customization for customers and the clients. Then it must be applied to the task of segmentation of talents. This has been the key for optimizing. At one side, the dealing of personal employment for individuals has been chaotic for the clients and consumers. On the other hand the defining of politically correctness of same for everybody has been risking the vital advantages of customization missing. Decentralized worksites For the HRM, the decentralized sites of work have been a challenge. Most of the challenges has been revolving across the training managers in establishing and ensuring proper work quality and completion on-time (Tyson 2014). The working from home has been also requiring the HRM to think again about its policy of compensation. Identification of controversies Controversies Descriptions Flexible Work Options Whether that might be work from home, telecommunicating, remote locations and flexi-hours, the HR professionals have been struggling with the concept of flexible work options. It has been the assimilation of getting the policies appropriate and trusting of people to finish jobs without being present in office while the set hour is on (Huffingtonpost.com, 2017). The death of performance appraisal According to Marchington et al. (2016) this has been more like the business as usual period of the year. There have been the people, forms and processes. The HR need to know the conversations they have been having unless the alterations are made. In order to make a long process of a year initially needs documentation of the conversions that need dedicated change agent. Dividing of the HR HR professionals have been becoming too much focused internally and have been unable to make sense of the bigger scenario of the business. For overcoming this Schwalbe (2015) believes that the HR must be divided. One section must deal with the administration and others for organization and leadership. However according to Popaitoon and Siengthai (2014), it has not been a holistic decision. The HRs requires looking at the analytics, competencies, organization design results and outcomes. Strengths and weaknesses of this study: The main strength of this study is the dealing with HR functionalities and strategies. The review refers to the long term goals. This includes the top-tier workforce or turning into the employer of choice. It involves the operational side of the HR, like conducting of open enrollment sessions to select latest health insurance coverage. The study talks about the internal strength of the HR that comprises of the executive leadership supporting and promoting development of HR strategic. The study also takes in considerations of the expertise and staff knowledge of the HR. However, the major weakness of the study is that it does not pose challenges to the HR endeavoring success. It does not talk about the budget constraints and cuts that the HT often needs to deal. It also does not cover the dependency of the HR on sound justification for funding investments on HR activities. Moreover, the study have not discussed about the high turnover and low employee morale that could disrupt the HR. Major implications of the outcomes: This would help in finding the kind and number of employees needed, recruiting, selecting and placing the employees. This would help in delivering performance appraisals and training to the staffs to improve the career and performance growth. The study helps to motivate employees though delivering incentives that are financial and non-financial. The employees are needed to be ensured with social grievances and their grievances are to be handled. The enterprises are needed to be defended from the legal complications. Amicable relationships are to be established between the management and union. Gaps in the knowledge: The efficient strategies of HRM are unable to survive in the vacuum. To become efficient they should be aligned with the strategic vision of the company (Snyder 2014). The vision must deliver the indication of where the organization has been heading. The resources of the people have been required to get to there. The HR leaders must review the present perspective to examine the ways by which the activities of HR could support the vision. The HR leaders must determine the demographics of workforce for examining where the gaps has been between the present skills. This also includes the necessities for the experience and skills that might appear further in alignment with strategies and visions of the company. The strategy of HR must be kept focused on filling up of those gaps by strategic training, retention, recruitment efforts. Conclusion: The primary strength of this review has been the dealing with HR functionalities and strategies. The review refers to the long term goals, the top-tier workforce or turning into the employer of choice. It also includes the operational side of the HR, like conducting of open enrollment sessions to select latest health insurance coverage. Regarding the gaps in the knowledge the efficient strategies of HRM are unable to survive in the vacuum. To become efficient they should be aligned with the strategic vision of the company. The strategy of HR must be kept focused on filling up of those gaps by strategic training, retention, recruitment efforts. The study would help to motivate employees though delivering incentives that are financial and non-financial. This would help in finding the kind and number of employees needed, recruiting, selecting and placing the employees. The human resource is more like the natural resources. They are to be searched for. They are not found easily anywhere. Circumstances are needed to be created where they display themselves. References: Anderson, V., 2013.Research methods in human resource management: investigating a business issue. Kogan Page Publishers. Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014.Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers. Bna.com. (2017).Insight Center. [online] Available at: https://www.bna.com/news/#!topic=hrtype=newspage=1 [Accessed 17 Jun. 2017]. Chua, C.K.L., Chan, M.J.J., Ho, C.B.D. and Tan, K.K.W., 2014. Project Management (Human Resource) and Value Stream Mapping (End to End Recruitment). Hoch, J.E. and Dulebohn, J.H., 2013. Shared leadership in enterprise resource planning and human resource management system implementation.Human Resource Management Review,23(1), pp.114-125. Huffingtonpost.com. (2017).Human Resources. [online] Available at: https://www.huffingtonpost.com/topic/human-resources [Accessed 17 Jun. 2017]. Kerzner, H., 2013.Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Marchington, M., Wilkinson, A., Donnelly, R. and Kynighou, A., 2016.Human resource management at work. Kogan Page Publishers. Popaitoon, S. and Siengthai, S., 2014. The moderating effect of human resource management practices on the relationship between knowledge absorptive capacity and project performance in project-oriented companies.International Journal of Project Management,32(6), pp.908-920. Resources, H. (2017).Human Resources. [online] Entrepreneur. Available at: https://www.entrepreneur.com/topic/human-resources [Accessed 17 Jun. 2017]. Schwalbe, K., 2015.Information technology project management. Cengage Learning. Shrm.org. (2017).HR News. [online] Available at: https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/news/hr-news/pages/default.aspx [Accessed 17 Jun. 2017]. Snyder, C.S., 2014. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK () Guide. Project Management Institute. Sparrow, P., Brewster, C. and Chung, C., 2016.Globalizing human resource management. Routledge. Storey, J., 2014.New Perspectives on Human Resource Management (Routledge Revivals). Routledge. Tyson, S., 2014.Essentials of human resource management. Routledge. Workforce Magazine. (2017).Workforce Magazine | Your Human Resources Resource. [online] Available at: https://www.workforce.com/ [Accessed 17 Jun. 2017]

Sunday, March 22, 2020

Realms of Earth Essay Sample free essay sample

Astro-physicists and scientists believe that there could be rather a few planets in the Universe similar to our planet Earth. There is besides a likely opportunity that some signifier of life prevails and sustains in one of such planet. However. so far as we soon know. the Earth is the lone planet which supports life which makes it a really alone planet. It is hence imperative ( really of import and necessary ) for us to understand the domains of the Earth as the domains play a important function to enable life signifiers to germinate. prevail and sustain. The three chief constituents of the Earth are H2O. air and dirt. They are non merely in contact with each other but are besides synergistic and interdependent. Life exists merely where these three constituents interact. The Earth’s system consists of four major subsystems. They are known as spheres. domains or kingdoms. They are the Lithosphere ( land ) . We will write a custom essay sample on Realms of Earth Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Hydrosphere ( H2O ) . Atmosphere ( air ) and Biosphere ( the parts of the Earth where life is found. including land. H2O and the lower portion of the ambiance ) . Lithosphere: the kingdom of land A ; MAJOR LANDFORMS The Lithosphere is the solid surface bed of the Earth. It is by and large referred to as the crust. It consists of all the land masses on the surface of the Earth. The surface of the Earth is really uneven. There are: High mountains. e. g. . the Himalayas. the Rockies. the Andes. the Alps. Vast fields. e. g. . the great fields of India. USA and Brazil. Deep vale. The two chief characteristics on the Earth’s surface are the continents and pelagic basins. Continents are big. distinguishable land multitudes normally separated by huge water-bodies ( oceans and seas ) . There are seven major continents in the universe. They are Asia. Africa. Europe. North America. South Ame rica. Australia and Antarctica. Most of the land masses lie in the Northern Hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere has comparatively fewer land multitudes. Jointly. the land multitudes are known as the geosphere. The lithosphere consists of different types of landforms. Landforms are features that make the Earth’s surface. The different types of landforms include mountains. tableland. hills. vales. fields. Ocean bed. sea bed. etc. How are the landforms formed? How are they utile to worlds? The surface of the Earth invariably undergoes alterations due to the action of assorted forces. It is indispensable to understand these forces and how they affect the landforms? Internal forcesInternal forces are besides known as endo-genetic forces or tectonic forces. Internal forces act from within the Earth that lead to sudden alterations on the face of the Earth. The crust of the Earth is really divided into several pieces which we call home bases. These home bases float over liquid molten stone called magma which lies below the solid crust. The nucleus of the Earth heats the liquefied magma. The liquefied magma bed is called the mantle. which is in between the nucleus and crust. Due to the intense activity within the nucleus and the mantle the magma frequently rises upwards when heated. It spreads. cools and so sinks back once more. to acquire heated and lift one time more. This changeless rise and sinking of the magma keeps forcing the home bases that rest on it. Therefore. the home bases are besides invariably traveling. This motion of the home bases is termed as home base tectonics. Sometimes the home bases move towards each other. or converge. Somet imes the home bases move off from each other. or diverge. Sometimes. the home bases slide by each other in a cross motion. Plate tectonics is responsible for the formation of mountains and vales o n the surface of the Earth. These characteristics can take 1000000s of old ages to organize. However. sometimes. sudden and strong motions take topographic point within the Earth. which conveying about monolithic alterations on the surface of the Earth. Examples are the alterations brought about on earth’s surface by the temblors. vents. landslides. etc. External forces External forces or gradatory forces are forces moving from above the surface of the Earth. They lead to decelerate and steady alterations on the face of the Earth and include all the agents of eroding like air current. H2O. glaciers. etc. The external forces lead to have oning off and reconstructing of the Earth’s surface. The agents of eroding physically change the Earth’s surface by gnawing ( have oning off ) land surfaces. transporting the eroded stuff and lodging the weather-beaten dirt. sand and dust at other topographic points. For illustration. rain. air current and rivers erode the mountains and Highlandss. the scoured atoms are carried and deposited farther down to organize fields. Types of landformsMountainA mountain is a natural lift of the Earth’s surface lifting high above its surrounding. Mountains have narrow acmes and wide bases. Mountains are found both on land and on the ocean floor. They are of different types. Some of them are really high and some comparatively short. Some have pointed extremums. while some have rounded tops. Some have steep inclines and some have soft inclines. The higher ranges of the mountains can be really cold. The higher the height. the lower will be the temperature. Fold MountainsFold Mountains are formed by the upward motion and folding of land multitudes due to sidelong compaction caused by tectonic or internal forces. When two home bases move towards each other. the topographic point of convergence of the two home bases gets compressed. The crust along the border gets crumpled or folded. Massive beds of the Earth’s crust get uplifted as a consequence of these meeting forces. ensuing in the formation of Fold Mountains. The Himalayas and the Alps were formed in the same manner in the recent geological yesteryear and are hence known as immature crease mountains. They have rugged alleviation and high. conelike extremums. The Aravalli scope in Rajasthan is one of the oldest crease mountain ranges in the universe. The scope has been lowered greatly due to uninterrupted eroding over 1000000s of old ages. The Ural mountainss in Russia and the Appalachians in North America are besides illustrations of really old crease mountains. They have been worn down well and have rounded characteristics. Such mountains can be classified into three signifiers: Young mountains ( late formed mountains. with crisp extremums. like the Himalayas ) ; Mature Mountains ( do non hold a crisp extremum which have been worn off due to the agents of eroding like air. H2O and sunshine ) and Old Mountains ( the most ancient mountains affected badly by the agents of eroding. over a great period of clip like 1000000s of old ages ) . Block Mountains When two home bases on the Earth’s crust diverge or are pulled apart. breaks appear on the Earth surface. These breaks are called mistakes. When two mistakes are formed alongside each other. big countries get displaced vertically along the two mistake lines. The land between the mistake lines either subsides ( falls ) or rises ( gets lifted ) . The uplifted portion of the land is called horst and the subsided portion is called graben or rift vales.Sometimes. rivers may flux through the rift vale. The Rhine Valley is a rift vale and the Voges Mountains in Europe are block mountains. River Narmada in the subcontinent of India flows through a rift vale. The Narmada Valley is a graben. a superimposed block of the Earth’s crust that dropped down comparative to the blocks on either side due to ancient spreading of the Earth’s crust. Two normal mistakes. known as the Narmada North mistake and Narmada South mistake. analogue to the river’s class. and tag the boundary between the Narmada block and the Vindhya and Satpura blocks or Horsts which rose comparative to the Narmada Graben.Volcanic MountainsThe conelike or dome-shaped constructions formed as a consequence of magma get awaying through Earth’s surface are called Volcanic mountains. The gap in Earth’s surface through which the magma escapes is called a blowhole. Magma that reaches the surface of the Earth is called lava. The hot lava flows over the surface of the Earth. cools and so hardens to organize lava sheets. Over 1000s of old ages. several beds of such lava sheets are deposited on top of each other to organize volcanic mountains. If the magma is thin and flows easy. gently inclining mountains are formed. such as Mauna Loa in Hawaii. However. if the lava is thick and syrupy. the mountains formed are cone shaped with steeply inclining sides. For illustration. Mt. Vesuvius in Italy. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt. Fuji in Japan. Pavagadh. near Vadodara. Gujarat is a good illustration of the Volcanic Mountains. The Importance of MountainsMountains influence the clime of a land. They help do rain by coercing clouds transporting wet to lift. condense and come down every bit rain. Several perennial rivers ( rivers that carry H2O throughout Thursday e twelvemonth ) originate from mountain glaciers. The Indus. Brahmaputra. Ganga. Yamuna and the other rivers are fed by mountain glaciers. Many fresh H2O lakes and springs are besides found in mountains. They act as reservoirs of H2O. Mountains are rich in vegetations and zoologies. The woods provide assorted merchandises like fuel. lumber. lac. nuts. fruits. medicative herbs and fresh fish. Many mountains are a rich beginning of minerals. Dams built across river vales provide irrigation and hydro-electricity ( e. g. Bhakra-Nangal Dam built on River Sutlej. ) Mountains and their picturesque vales encourage touristry. They besides support featuring activities such as paragliding. stone mounting. manus gliding. river rafting and skiing. PLATEAUS A tableland is a wide. degree. elevated country of land. Since a tableland has a level top with aggressively falling sides. it besides called a plateau. Often a tableland may hold one gently inclining side and one steep side. The steep side of a tableland is called an escarpment. A big portion of the surface of the Earth is made up of tableland. Most of the continents have big tableland. The largest and highest tableland in the universe is the Chang Tang of Tibet. called the roof of the World. India has Malwa tableland in the Central portion. ChhotaNagpur tableland in the Eastern side of India. The Deccan Plateau in the peninsular Southern India is one of the oldest tableland of the universe. Most of the African continent is made of tableland. East Africa. Kenya. Tanzania and Uganda are all located on a tableland. Plateaus are of different types: Inter-montane tableland are those that are surrounded wholly or partly by mountains. for illustration. the tableland of Tibet.Continental tableland are huge countries of plateau that rise suddenly from the seashore or environing fields. e. g. . the tableland of Africa.Lava tableland are formed when lava flows out of crevices and spreads thickly over extended countries. The Deccan tableland is a lava tableland.Tablelands are besides really utile to worlds. Lava tableland. like the Deccan tableland. are mostly com posed of black dirt. which is really fertile. It is utile for the cultivation of harvests. Most tablelands have rich sedimentations of minerals. The Chhota Nagpur tableland in India has rich sedimentations of Fe ore. manganese and coal. The African tableland is rich in gold and diamond sedimentations. The rivers fluxing along plateaus autumn from a great tallness when they flow across the excarpments. They form waterfalls. The H2O falls with great force and assist revolve turbines to bring forth electricity. Hundru falls on the river Subarnarekha and Jog falls on the river Sharavati in the Deccan tableland are some illustrations. PlainA low-lying huge level land is called a field. Plains are formed in different ways. While most of them are levelled alluvial piece of lands. some are rounded and some undulating ( soft rise and autumn ) . Alluvial piece of lands are formed when rivers and their feeders bring down eroded stuff from the mountains. The scoured stuff is called dust or alluvial sediment. It contains sand. silt. clay and animate being and works affair. T hey supply the rich foods required for the dirt. Plains are normally fertile and are extensively used for the cultivation of harvests. Plains are the most dumbly populated parts on Earth. People settle in fields for many grounds. Normally H2O is abundant. The land being level and fertile. it enables cultivation of harvests. It is possible to construct an first-class web of roads and railroads. The ports andseaports in coastal fields promote international trade. The fields of river Indus. Ganga and Yamuna in India. the fields of the river Nile in Egypt and the fields of the river Hwang Ho in China are dumbly populated. ValleyValleies are the low-lying land between hills or mountains. They may or may non hold a river fluxing through them. River vales are normally V-shaped. The Rhine Valley in Europe and the Damodar Valley in India are river vales formed by glaciers. Large multitudes of ice that move down a mountain incline are U-shaped. Glacial vales are found in the Alps and the Himalayas. BasinsA basin is a down subdivision of the Earth’s crust with environing land ( E. g. Ocean basins ) . Many basins are found alongside tableland borders and form countries of inland drainage. i. e. . the rivers fluxing in the basin do non make the sea. The Tarim Basin of Asia and the Chad Basin of North Central Africa are basins of inland drainage. Apart from these major landforms. there are some typical minor landscapes as good Islands: An island is a piece of land which is surrounded on all sides by H2O. India has two grou PS of islands – the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea and the Andaman -Nicobar islands in the Bay of Bengal. Sri Lanka is an island merely south of India. in the Indian Ocean. Malagasy ( Madagascar ) is another large island in the same ocean. Try to place other islands on a universe map. Many islands together are called Archipelago. ( e. g. Lakshadweep and Andaman islands ) . A little sized island is called an islet. Peninsulas: A peninsula is a piece of land that is surrounded by H2O on three sides and joined to a larger land mass. The peninsular tableland of India and the Malay Peninsula are two illustrations of peninsulas attached to the continent of Asia. Isthmuss: An isthmus is an extended narrow piece of land linking two larger land countries. normally with major water-bodies on either side. E. g. : the Isthmus of Panama that joins North America and South America and separates the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic Ocean. The Isthmus of Suez joins Africa to Asia and separated the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Bay: A bay is an unfastened. swerving indenture made by the sea into a coastline. E. g. Bay of Bengal Gulf: A gulf is an recess of the sea of big proportion. Gulfs are more enclosed / narrower than bay. E. g. : Gulf of Kutch and Gulf of Khambhat. Passs: A sound is a narrow stretch of H2O fall ining two big H2O organic structures and dividing two big land multitudes. E. g. : Palk Strait.Ocean Bed: the earth’s crust found under the H2O of the ocean or the sea is the ocean bed or sea bed. These are the deepest portion of the Earth’s crust. The deep vales form the abysm and the extremums of high rise mountains frequently form Islands or islets. Sea Bed: the earth’s crust found under the sea. organizing the sea bed. These are normally shallower than the Ocean bed. Hydrosphere: the kingdom of H2O A ; MAJOR WATER-BODIESHydrosphere ( hydro= H2O ) refers to the portion of Earth that is covered with H2O. It includes H2O in all signifiers. i. e. solid ( ice ) . liquid ( H2O ) and gas ( H2O vapor ) . Water is found as ice sheets in glaciers. It is found as streamlined H2O in oceans. rivers. lakes. pools and belowground watercourse. It is besides found as H2O vapor in the ambiance. All these signifiers together make the Hydrosphere. Of the Earth’s surface. 71 % is covered by H2O and merely 29 % by land. This gives T he Earth another name – the Blue Planet. 97 % of the Earth’s H2O is found in the oceans and is salty. 2 % of the H2O is found in the signifier of glaciers and ice sheets. Merely 1 % of the H2O is found as fresh H2O on the surface and as belowground watercourses. Fresh H2O is. hence. a critical resource. Fresh H2O comes down as precipitation from the ambiance to the Earth’s surface. flows as rivers and watercourses along it. and is found as groundwater beneath it. The H2O rhythm Water rhythm refers to the interchange of the signifiers of H2O on this planet. It involves three different procedures – vaporization. condensation and precipitation.Water is transferred from the Earth’s surface to the ambiance through vaporization. It is the procedure by which H2O when heated. alterations into a gas. Approximately 80 % of all vaporization is from the oceans. and the staying 20 % is from inland H2O and flora. Condensation is the procedure by which the H2O vapor in the ambiance when cooled. alterations to its original liquid province. In the ambiance. condensed H2O may look as clouds. mist. fog. dew. etc. depending on the physical conditions of the ambiance. When H2O droplets get excessively heavy to stay suspended in the air. they fall to the Earth as precipitation. Precipitation occurs in a assortment of signifiers – hail. rain. stop deading rain. sleet or snow. Types of Water-BodiesOceansOceans are huge multitudes of ungratified water-bodies. The ocean Waterss are ever traveling. The three major motions of the ocean Waterss are moving ridges. tides and currents. Tides are the periodic rise and falling of the H2O caused by the gravitative force of the Moon and Sun moving upon the revolving Earth. Waves are the lifting and falling motions of surface sea H2O caused by the force of the air currents. Currents are the horizontal motions of sea H2O caused by many factors including air current and the Earth’s motion. How the Oceans formed: The semi liquefied surface of the prehistoric Earth was covered by vents. Hot gases and H2O vapors given off by the vents formed the Earth’s early atmosphere. The H2O vapor in this early ambiance condensed as rain. Rainstorms poured down on the planet and filled the huge hollows on the Earth’s surface. These immense pools of H2O formed the oceans. The H2O was hot and acidic. Later. works life evolved and changed the composing of the ambiance and ocean. Oceans form the major portion of the hydrosphere. All the oceans of the universe are interconnected. Oceans help international trade by organizing natural Marine rou T. They besides support marine life. Oceanic currents – the motion of the mass of pelagic H2O in a definite way – aid keep the specific conditions forms and climatic conditions. Pacific OceanIt is the deepest and the largest ocean. It covers about one -third of the Earth’s surface. In fact. it is so large that all the continents could easy suit into it. The adventurer Ferdinand Magellan named the ocean ‘Pacific’ significance composure or tranquil. The International Date Line passes through the Pacific Ocean. It is located between the Southern Ocean. Asia. Australia. and North and South America. The length of coastline is 135. 663 kilometer. Its lowest point is Challenger Deep in the Mariana trench at 10. 924 m below average sea degree. This is the deepest point on the surface of the Earth. The mean deepness of the Pacific Ocean is about 4. 030 m. The Atlantic Ocean It is the 2nd largest of the world’s oceans. It lies between Africa. Europe. the Southern Ocean. and the Western Hemisphere. The length of its coastline is 111. 866 kilometer. The lowest point in this ocean is Mi lwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench at 8605 m below the average sea degree. The form of the Atlantic is like the missive ‘S’ and its mean deepness is about 3330m. Though this ocean is smaller than the Pacific. it has a big figure of ports and seaports. The Indian Ocean It is the 3rd largest of the world’s ocean. It is enclosed by land in the North and lies between Africa and the Southern Ocean. Asia and Australia. The extent of coastline of this ocean is 66. 526 kilometer. The Java Trench at 7258 m deep is its deepest point. Its shores consist of some of the ancient tableland and the remains of the Gondwanaland. The Arctic OceanIt is the smallest of the world’s oceans. It lies good within the Arctic Circle around th e North Pole. The coastline is about 45. 389 kilometer. Fram Basin at 4665 m forms the deepest point of the Arctic Ocean. The Arctic is connected to the Pacific by a narrow stretch of shallow H2O organic structure called the Bering Strait. In the northern seashore it is bound by North America and Eurasia. Most of the clip. North-polar Ocean remains frozen. Apart from the oceans. there are some smaller H2O -bodies excessively: Seas: A sea is a portion of an ocean that is smaller and shallower. It is normally located near to the border of a local area network 500 mass or continent. E. g. : Arabian Sea. Mediterranean Sea. Lakes: Lakes are little organic structures of H2O which are surrounded by land on all sides. Large lakes are called inland seas. for illustration. the Aral Sea. the Dead Sea. the Black Sea. the Baikal Lake and the Caspian Sea of Eurasia. Rivers: A river is a watercourse of H2O which flows in a channel from high land to moo land and eventually to a lake or sea. The topographic point where a river originates is called its beginning. which usually lies in a hill or a mountain. The topographic point where a river ends its journey is called its oral cavity. The oral cavity is usually the topographic point where the river enters the sea. The path or the class of a river has three different phases – upper. center and lower. The upper class by and large lies in mountains and. hence. the land is steep. The river flows really fleetly at this phase. When the river descends to the fields from the mountains. it is in its in-between class. The velocity of its flow decreases well as it flows through countries that have a soft R incline. The river is in its lower class near its oral cavity. where the incline is negligible and. hence. its flow has about halted. Atmosphere: the kingdom of bluessThe bed of air that surrounds our Earth is called the ambiance. The word ambiance is derived from ‘atmos’ which means ‘vapour’ in Greek. This is the most dynamic portion of the major spheres of our planet. The ambiance is a mixture of gases. dust and vapor which encompasses the Earth every bit far as 10000 kilometers above the Earth surface. The ambiance protects us from solar radiation every bit good as meteors. meteorites and smaller dust which autumn towards earth every twenty-four hours. The ambiance besides helps to keep the Earths’ temperature every bit good as aids in the climatic and conditions forms. The lower bed of atmosphere contains legion life prolonging gases like Oxygen. Carbon-di-oxide. Nitrogen. etc every bit good as H2O vapor. The ambiance is divided into six chief beds on the footing of its composing. temperature. force per unit area. etc.The troposphere is the bed that is closest to the Earth and the topographic point where all conditions alterations occur. Ninety per centum of all air is found in this bed and it contains most of the H2O vapor and dust atoms of the ambiance. The troposphere extends up to 18 kilometers at the Equator and bit by bit declines up to 8 kilometers at the poles. This the most of import bed for life on Earth. The most upper part of troposphere is known as tropo-pause. The stratosphere extends beyond the troposphere. It is barren of H2O vapor and dust atoms and there is no turbulency and clouds in the air. This is where airplanes fly. The stratosphere extends from the troposph ere to heights runing from 20 to 50 kilometers above sea degree. The stratosphere contains the ozone bed or ozonosphere. the portion of the Earth’s ambiance which has high concentrations of ozone. a signifier of O. This bed consequences when O molecules split due to extremist -violet radiation coming from the Sun. The ozone bed absorbs and blocks the harmful ultraviolet beams of the Sun. The mesosphere extends to a tallness of 80 kilometers above the stratosphere. This domain has the coldest temperature in the ambiance. The temperature can be every bit low as -90  °C.The ionosphere or thermosphere extends from 80 kilometers to 480 kilometer. The temperatures here are every bit high as 1480 °C. It is electrically charged due to a procedure called ionisation: atoms change into ions through add-on or remotion of negatrons. Ionization happens due to X raies and gamma beams from the Sun. This high temperature of this sphere protects Earth from infinite dust similar meteors every bit good as disused orbiters. Tele-communications affecting wireless moving ridges are besides possible due to the electrically charged molecules of this domain. The exosphere is someplace between 480 kilometers to 960 kilometer. It bit by bit merges with infinite. The temperature here ranges from 300 °C to 1600 °C and air force per unit area is highly low. Composition of the ambianceThe Earth’s ambiance is a mixture of 12 gases. The ambiance contains 78 % N. 21 % O and 1 % other gases like C dioxide. Ar. He etc. Thus N and oxygen the vitalizing gas. do up about 99 % of clean and dry air. The composing of the atmosphere influences the clime of a topographic point. Though merely a minute sum of C dioxide is present in the ambiance. it is responsible for maintaining the planet warm. It traps the heat of the Sun and prevents it from traveling back into infinite. It therefore acts like a cover for the Earth. This heat is indispensable for the sprouting of pla National Trusts and the endurance of life. This procedure of heat acquiring trapped in the ambiance to maintain the Earth warm is known as the nursery consequence. Atmospheric force per unit area and air current: Air has weight. The entire weight of the air is called air force per unit area or atmospheric force per unit area. Air force per unit area varies with location and clip. because the sum ( and weigh ) of air above the Earth varies from topographic point to topographic point and clip to clip. Atmospheric force per unit area decreases with addition in height. Temperature besides decreases with addition in altitude particularly in the troposphere. Air ever moves from a part of high force per unit area to part of low force per unit area. Traveling air is called air current. Biosphere: the kingdom of the life and BIOMESLife on Earth exists due to the presence every bit good as interaction of the three domains discussed earlier: the Lithosphere. the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere. The portion of the Earth where life exists is called the Biosphere. ‘Bios’ is a Grecian word significance ‘life’ . The Biosphere is the narrow contact zone between the geosphere. the hydrosphere and the ambiance. where life signifiers exist. ( Mention the first image on Page 1 of this stuff ) . Life on Earth is possible because of Its optimal distance from the Sun ( neither is it excessively far nor is it excessively near to the Sun ) . The presence of a protective ambiance.The handiness of equal H2O required for life signifiers.The biosphere consists of the interaction of workss. animate beings and other life things which invariably interact with their environment. This changeless interaction helps keep a balance between beings and their environment. Populating beings range in size from microscopic bacteriums to immense mammals. All of them. including worlds are mutualist. In the biosphere. living things signifier communities based on their physical milieus. These communities are referred to as Biomes. Deserts. grasslands and woods are some of import types of biomes. Biomes are defined as â€Å"the world’s major communities. classified harmonizing to the prevailing flora and characterized by versions of beings to that peculiar environment† ( Campbell 1996 ) . The importance of biomes can non be under-estimated. Biomes have changed and moved many times during the history of life on Earth. More late. human activities have drastically altered these communities. Therefore. preservation and saving of biomes should be a major concern to all. Types of Biomes FRESH-WATER BIOMEFreshwater is defined as holding a low salt concentration — normally less than 1 % . Plants and animate beings in fresh water parts are adjusted to the low salt content and would non be able to last in countries of high salt concentration ( i. e. . ocean ) . There are different types of fresh water parts: Ponds and lakes Streams and riversWetlandsPonds and lakes: These parts range in size from merely a few square metres to 1000s of squa rhenium kilometers. Scattered throughout the Earth. several are leftovers from the Pleistocene glaciations period. Many pools are seasonal. lasting merely a twosome of months ( such as sessile pools ) while lakes may be for 100s of old ages or more. Ponds and lakes may hold limited species diverseness since they are frequently isolated from one another and from other H2O beginnings like rivers and oceans. Streams and rivers: These are organic structures of fluxing H2O traveling in one way. Streams and rivers can be found everyplace — they get their starts at headwaters. which may be springs. snowmelt or even lakes. and so go all the manner to their oral cavities. normally another H2O channel or the ocean. The features of a river or watercourse alteration during the journey from the beginning to the oral cavity. The temperature is cooler at the beginning than it is at the oral cavity. The H2O is besides clearer. has higher O degrees. and freshwater fish such as trout s and hetero-trophs can be found at the oral cavity. Wetlands: Wetlands are countries of standing H2O that support aquatic workss. Marshes. swamps. and bogs are all considered wetlands. Plant species adapted to the really damp and humid conditions are called aquatic plants. These include pool lilies. cattails. sedges. American larch. and black spruce. Marsh vegetation besides includes such species as cypress and gum. Wetlands have the highest species diverseness of all ecosystems. MARINE BIOME Marine parts cover about three-quarterss of the Earth’s surface and include oceans. coral reefs. and estuaries. Marine algae supply much of the world’s O supply and take in a immense sum of atmospheric C dioxide. The vaporization of the saltwater provides rainwater for the land. The largest of all the ecosystems. oceans are really big organic structures of H2O that dominate the Earth’s surface. DESERT BIOME Desertss cover about fifth parts of the Earth’s surface. Normally. rainfall is less than 50 cm/year in comeuppances. Desert biomes can be classified harmonizing to several features. There are three major types of comeuppances: Hot and drySemi-aridColdHot and dry comeuppances: The four major North American comeuppances of this type are the Chihuahuan. Sonoran. Mojave and Great Basin. Others outside the U. S. include the Southern Asiatic kingdom. Neo -tropical ( South and Central America ) . Ethiopian ( Africa ) and Australian barrens. The seasons are by and large warm throughout the twelvemonth and really hot in the summer. The winters normally bring small rainfall. Semi-arid comeuppances: The major comeuppances of this type include the Sagebrush of Utah. Montana and Great Basin. They besides include the Ne-arctic kingdom ( North America. Newfoundland. Greenland. Russia. Europe and northern Asia ) . The summers are reasonably long and dry. and like hot comeuppances. the winters usually bring low concentrations of rainfall. Summer temperatures normally average between 21-27 ° C. Cold comeuppances: These comeuppances are characterized by cold winters with snowfall on occasion over the summer. They occur in the Antarctic. Greenland and the Ne-arctic kingdom. They have short. moist. and reasonably warm summers with reasonably long. cold winters. FOREST BIOMEForest biomes are biological communities that are dominated by trees and other woody flora ( Spurr and Barnes 1980 ) . Forest biomes can be classified harmonizing to legion features. with seasonality being the most widely used. Distinct forest types besides occur within each of these wide groups. There are three major types of woods. classed harmonizing to latitude: Tropical TemperateBoreal woods ( taiga )Tropical ForestTropical woods are characterized by the greatest diverseness of species. They occur near the equator. within the country bounded by latitudes 23. 5 grades N and 23. 5 grades S. One of the major features of tropical woods is their distinguishable seasonality: winter is absent. and merely two seasons – showery and dry prevail. The length of daytime is 12 hours and varies little. Temperate ForestTemperate woods are found in eastern North America. north-eastern Asia. and western and cardinal Europe. Chiseled seasons with a distinguishable winter characterize this forest biome. Moderate clime and a turning season of 140-200 yearss during 4-6 frost-free months distinguish temperate woods. Taiga Forests ( Boreal ) Boreal woods. or taiga. stand for the largest terrest rial biome. Happening between 50 and 60 grades north latitudes. boreal woods can be found in the wide belt of Eurasia and North America: two -thirds in Siberia with the remainder in Scandinavia. Alaska. and Canada. Seasons are divided into short. moist. and reasonably warm summers and long. cold. and dry winters. The length of the turning season in boreal woods is 130 yearss. TUNDRA BIOME Tundra is the coldest of all the biomes. Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturi. intending treeless field. It is noted for its frost-moulded landscapes. highly low temperatures. small precipitation. hapless foods. and short turning seasons. Dead organic stuff maps as a alimentary pool. The two major foods are nitrogen and P. Nitrogen is created by biological arrested development. and phosp Horus is created by precipitation. GRASSLAND BIOME Grasslands are characterized as lands dominated by grasses instead than big bushs or trees. In the Miocene and Pliocene Epochs. which spanned a period of about 25 million old ages. mountains rose in wester n North America and created a Continental clime favorable to grasslands. Ancient woods declined and grasslands became widespread. Following the Pleistocene Ice Ages. grasslands expanded in scope as hotter and desiccant climes prevailed worldwide. There are two chief divisions of grasslands: Tropical grasslands or Savannah Temperate grasslandsThe grasslands of the universe Savannah or Tropical grasslandSavannah is grassland with scattered single trees. Savannah cover about half the surface of Africa ( about five million square stat mis. by and large cardinal Africa ) and big countries of Australia. South America and India. Climate is the most of import factor in a Savannah. Savannah are ever found in warm or hot climes where the one-year rainfall is from about 50. 8 to 127 centimeter ( 20-50 inches ) per twelvemonth. Temperate grasslandTemperate grasslands have grasses as the dominant flora. Trees and big bushs are absent. Temperatures vary more from summer to winter. and the sum of rainfall is less in temperate grasslands than in Savannah. The major manifestations are the veldts of South Africa. the puszta of Hungary. the pampas of Argentina and Uruguay. the steppes of the former Soviet Union. and the fields and prairies of cardinal North America. Human Impact on BiomesHuman and natural activity affects Biomes in different ways. When worlds exploit forest for wood or flora.When worlds clear woods for agribusiness. industrialisation or for researching minerals. When natural catastrophes like temblors. volcanic eruptions. inundations or tsunamis occur. When inordinate graze takes topographic point. When there is a forest fire. etc.It is of import to protect the kingdom of the Earth from debasement. These kingdoms of the Earth interact with each other and assist prolong the assorted life signifiers. including the worlds. Thus the kingdoms affect the lives of human existences. Human activity in footings of industrialisation has several negative impacts. Industrial emanations pollute the air. Industrial wastewaters pollute H2O organic structures. Carbon dioxide is an of import gas. However an addition in the degree of this gas has caused the temperature of the Earth to lift. This is known as planetary heating. Human activities are doing the depletion of the ozone bed. The ozone bed protects t he Earth from the harmful ultra-violet beams of the Sun. The most pressing demand today is that all of us learn to restrict the usage of resources and conserve the same for the future coevalss. We should salvage the planet from farther pollution and maintain it safe – non merely for ourselves but besides for the diverse life signifiers that are found on planet Earth.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Signing up Essays

Signing up Essays Signing up Essay Signing up Essay Exposition supported with Process, Definition, Narrative, or Comparison/Contrast. Each paragraph must be supported with at least one brief narrative, but the essay as a whole may not be one long narrative. If you find your topic sentences beginning with terms that suggest time or chronological order (Then, Next, Afterwards, Finally) then you need to restructure your essay to arrange your material logically, not chronologically. Topic Description: In this essay, I want you to think through and write about what you believe Is a value/an activity/ a life/ a Life-blew/a principle by which life may be directed (choose Just one) that you hope to pass down to your posterity, to future generations. Arrange material logically, not chronologically. In each body paragraph, you must use at least one narrative to support the topic sentence, but you may not turn your essay into one long narrative. The thesis must be clearly stated, and then each topic sentence should make a point supporting the thesis. You may choose a process to write about, but the actual process should only be described In one paragraph and only If necessary. In other words, a process is form of narrative writing, so the whole essay cant be focused on how to do the process, but the essay CAN focus on the importance of that process to you and to your family. Write in First or Third Person only (no Second Person). Write 650 to 850 words. Audience and Purpose: The audience for this essay Is someone who Is Interested In finding out more about you: your teacher, your classmates, your own family, or even your current or future children. Your purpose is to explain something you already know and understand to someone who doesnt. Assume anything you write this master?whether in an essay or in a Journal entry?may be read to anyone or by anyone at any time during class or outside of class throughout the semester. If you do not want your mother, sister, preacher, priest, or chatty next-door-neighbor to know something, do not write It down! Follow the class schedule for due dates. How to be successful with this essay assignment. Meeting deadlines is key so that the instructor may help you and so that you have time to use the computer programs available to revise accordingly. Being specific in the details you write is important. Suppose for example, you were to write a paper for a government class arguing whether or not the city manager of a town should be fired or should have his or her contract renewed. Avoid a general statement such as The city manager should be let go because he has made a bunch of people mad. Instead come up with specific details such as The city manger is corrupt and as a result should not have his contract renewed. Your main points could explain his corruption: because he has fired two city employees who refused to contribute to his brother-in-laws campaign for sheriff, because he has put family and friends on the itty payroll who are Incompetent and without having gone through normal hiring home. Those three ideas become the topic sentences for the supporting body paragraphs. Make sur e you know what your Main Point or thesis is as you develop your Main Ideas and as you develop your supporting ideas. Consider your audience. What if your audience does not have the same belief? How can you explain your belief if the audience has never considered it? When arranging material logically, move from weakest or most obvious main idea to the strongest main idea. Remember, the lasting impression lasts and the last idea presented may often influence the grade assigned by a teacher. If you ever begin a paragraph with another example is .. , then you know you need to revamp that paragraph. It needs a new topic and a new topic sentence! Take advantage of every editing opportunity. Fill in the form so that you will be ready to write Essay #1 . Come up with ideas for at least 4 body paragraphs, but you may end up using only three by the time you write your essay. Having only two ideas suggests to the teacher not having put in enough thought about the topic. This form is for your use only, but if I suggest a conference with you, I will want you to et it to me?copy paste it and send it in Blackboard Mail. You can propose a conference if you want me to check to see how you are doing. You dont have to wait for me to propose it. Working thesis: (Write the life value down in a succinct statement along with a comment on why that life value is important to you or to your family. ) Main Idea #1: Ideas to support Main idea : (Include one narrative idea) 2. 3. Main Idea #2: Ideas to support Main idea #2: Ideas to support Main idea #3: Main Idea #4: Ideas to support Main idea #4: How I will draw my essay to a conclusion or end it:

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Memo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 8

Memo - Essay Example o focuses on potential benefits of paying part of fee for the college attendance, for the students, to create a clear picture of the possible effects of the move on the students and the company. One of the benefits of the move to sponsor the students is the knowledge that they will gain and use in the organization. Even though the organization is a manufacturing company, it requires diversified competencies such as administrative potentials, human resource management potentials, budgeting and planning potentials and leadership skills. Having students attend the college will train them on the business and economics scopes that they can use in different sectors of the organization. Training students on cost accounting and managerial accounting, elements of the college’s accounting program, will for example facilitate efficiency in planning for organization’s resources and promote cost effectiveness towards lower production cost. Even though the company may spend significant amount of money on paying the students’ fee, the results, which is likely to culminate into higher profit margin, due to low production cost, may surpass the expenditure in the fee. Ef ficiencies may also emerge from improved competencies in human resource management and leadership that can motivate and empower students for greater potentials and productivity levels. Training some students on human resource management will facilitate an understanding of students’ attitudes and changes in attitudes for measures that can ensure favorable environment for students’ optimal output. Developing leadership potentials is will also help the trained students to facilitate the organizations’ objectives through empowering and influencing other students. Paying part of the students’ fee, in sponsoring them into the school, will also have general positive effects on their perception on the company, and commitment to the company. The move is likely to develop students’ perception that the

Monday, February 3, 2020

The interpretation of Islamic texts is entirely independent of Essay

The interpretation of Islamic texts is entirely independent of historical vicissitudes. Discuss - Essay Example Most of the interpretation of the Islamic texts is based on the historical changes and this is modified in order to suit a particular context whether present or past. It is in this perspective that I will be arguing against the perception that the interpretation of the Islamic texts is entirely independent of historical vicissitudes. The paper will be split into various categories in order to look analytically on the aspects that support my argument. The first section will be a history on Islam in the world. Thereafter I will discuss and argue against the aforementioned topic. This will be done in different contexts like looking at the gender in relation of the Islam; this will be looked at in relation of the treatment of women and men through the interpretation of the Islamic texts. Each concept will be looked at analytically with the support of relevant reading material and credited sources. The last section will be the conclusion of the paper and how each of the said point has bee n relevant during the research for this paper. Each argument will be argued first with me giving my own opinion about it then using the citation from relevant materials and concluding with my own opinion of the said topic. Each stage will have the relevant support references. Introduction to Islam The history of Islam has in most cases been associated with the sole existence of Islamic states and empires. Since the beginning Islam was existing; the spread of the religion was on a community—state basis. It was both a faith and a political order. Within years and centuries after the His death, Muhammad’s local Arabian polity did become a very huge empire going as far as North Africa to Southeast Asia. The advancement and development of Islam and institutions are always intertwined. Islam: The History In the 6th Century in the Arabia brought forward the rise of Islam. The Arabia was the source and congregation of many beliefs. Christianity and also the practice of Judaism was in the region although for the better part of the 6th Century C.E (Common Era) they were overwhelmed by the faction of the tribal deities that practices barbaric activities. Muhammad (pbuh), the Prophet of Islam was born in Mecca in 570 Common Era in what is referred to as Saudi Arabia. His family dealt in trade and by the time He was 25 he was employed by an old woman who was a widow with whom He later married. At 40, He began to experience visions and also auditory revelations, throughout His occasional meditation retreat in the caves. According to Islamic Social Services Association, the angel Gabriel revealed himself to Him and gave Him a book in which he was commanded to â€Å"Read†. In the beginning this revelation was being shared with His friends and family and with instances He congregated on a daily basis with the growing number of people and the meaning of Peace was shared. The message that Muhammad (pbuh) had for Peace was met with resistance thus it made Him run away to Medina. The event is called Hijrah (emigration). Eventually He returned to Mecca and died in 632 in Medina and He also did not leave any male heir. According to Endress (1987), The word Islam is an Arabic word meaning peace, greeting, allegiance loyalty and obedience to the Creator. According to Muslims, Allah chose Prophet

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Pathogenic Etiology of Atherosclerosis

Pathogenic Etiology of Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis Heart Coronary Special Topics in Pathophysiology Introduction to the Components of the Cardiovascular System: To understand the basis of this paper, the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, it is vital to appreciate the basic physiology of the heart, circulatory system, and most importantly, the coronary arteries. This fundamental comprehension will lay the foundation to better understand the devastation caused to the coronary arteries by the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This may also provide insight into prevention and treatment strategies to counteract the destructive mechanism of this disease. The heart is a very small, vitally important organ composed of four muscular chambers: the right and left atria, and the right and left ventricles. The atria have relatively thin muscular walls, allowing them to be highly distensible [1]; whereas the ventricles are of greater muscular thickness, which is vital for pumping the blood to the pulmonary and systemic circuits. A normal healthy heart has two main functions: to pump blood to the pulmonary circuit where the blood becomes oxygenated and to pump the oxygen-rich blood to the systemic circuit. The heart is essentially a small, muscular pump that is responsible for propelling deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while correspondingly pumping nutrient rich, oxygenated blood to the body. Once the blood leaves the left ventricle, it enters the aorta and corresponding network of arteries that constitute the circulatory system. Blood vessels are divided into four categories: arteries (take oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body), arterioles (branch out from the arteries leading into the capillaries), capillaries (smallest of blood vessels where gas and nutrient exchange occurs), and veins (carry deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart). Arteries and veins have different functions; however, they both are composed of three distinct layers: tunica intima, tunica media, and the tunica adventita [2]. The tunica intima is the innermost layer of any given blood vessel; it includes the endothelial lining and a layer of connective tissue containing variable amounts of elastic fibers [3]. The tunica media is the middle layer which contains concentric sheets of smooth muscle composed of elastin and collagen fibers [3]. It is this smooth muscle that when stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system either constricts, decreasing the diameter of the lumen (vasoconstriction), or it relaxes, increasing the diameter of the vessel lumen (vasodilation) [2]; the role of these vasoactivators will be discussed later in this paper. Lastly, the tunica adventitia is the outer most layer, which is composed of collagen and elastin fibers. Often, this outer layer is blended into adjacent tissues allowing the anchoring and stabilization of some vessels [2]. As the heart is an organ continuously doing work, the cardiac muscle cells are in need of a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. It is the coronary circulation that is responsible for the blood supply to the cardiac tissues, via an extensive network of coronary arteries. Both the left and right coronary arteries originate from the base of the ascending aorta within the aortic sinus [1,3]. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role as neurogenic stimuli have the ability to restrain the extent of coronary vasodilation. This neuromodulation governs the rate of release of vasoconstrictive norepinephrine (NE), which is increased by the adrenergic activation and angiotension II (AII) [1]. Other vasoconstrictors include ÃŽ ±1 and ÃŽ ±2 adrenergic activity, AII, and endothelin. Vasoconstrictive stimuli are also responsible for an increase in free cytosolic calcium in the vascular smooth muscle, resulting in the homeostasis of myocardial contraction [4]. Importantly, these vasoconstrictive adrenergic influences are opposed by vasodilatory influences such as ÃŽ ²-adrenergic vascular receptors and metabolic mechanisms such as nitric oxide (NO), adenosine (ATP) and the activation of vascular ATP dependent potassium channels (KATP) [1]. With this, there are three essential regulators of coronary tone: i) the metabolic vasodilatory system; ii) the neurogenic control system (more vasoconstrictive than vasodilatory); and iii) the vascular epithelium, which can be either vasodilatory by releasing NO or vasoconstrictive by releasing endothelin-1 [1, 4]. Thus, we must keep in mind that endothelin-1 is one of the more powerful vasoconstrictors, especially when endothelial damage is extensive [1, 4]. These vasoactive substances are activated by their respective and very different, signaling pathways; thus contributing to the complexities of atherosclerosis, making it a true multifactorial disease. As with other vessels within the body, when there is an increased demand for oxygen, vasodilation of the coronary arteries occurs. This vasodilation is usually mediated by the release of NO from healthy endothelium; in contrast, when the endothelium is damaged, it releases vasoconstrictive endothelin [1]. It is because of their vital importance that the coronary arteries have gained popular attention when they are partially or completely occluded by atherosclerotic plaques. These atherosclerotic plaques cause inadequate oxygen supply to the cardiac tissue resulting in tissue death (myocardial infarction), and various other forms of heart diseases [1]. Therefore without an adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardial muscle, the heart will cease to function properly. This basic foundation will give us a better idea on how a healthy cardiovascular system functions. Therefore allowing us to understand the drastic effects a disease such as atherosclerosis can have on this system. The main focus of this paper will be on atherosclerosis; however other forms of heart disease will be discussed to solidify the idea of how destructive atherosclerosis can be. Thus, the remainder of this paper will focus on the cellular mechanisms behind atherosclerosis, along with old and new thoughts in regards to the etiology and treatment options for this type of heart disease. Their Underlying Relation of Atherosclerosis to Other Coronary Heart Diseases: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as the dominant chronic disease in many parts of the world, and early in the 21st century it is predicted to become the main cause of disability and death worldwide [5]. CVD represents a very broad category of conditions that affect the heart and circulatory system. Common risk factors include: blood pressure (hypertension), total cholesterol (LDL and HDL), diabetes, obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and genetic predisposition [6]. The most prominent and worrisome of these diseases are those that contribute to coronary heart disease. The coronary heart diseases of interest include: ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and most importantly, atherosclerosis. As a result of these coronary heart diseases, cardiac output is often depressed and often increases the oxygen demand needed by the cardiac tissues. Therefore the effects of coronary heart disease cannot be taken lightly, as the effects can be highly variable, ranging from diffuse damage, to localized narrowing or stenosis of the coronary arteries [7]. Importantly, these coronary diseases have direct vasodilatory effects of the coronary circulation, acting by the formation of adenosine and NO, and the opening of the KATP channels; also the vascular endothelium is damaged, causing the vasodilatory stimuli to be overcome by the vasoconstrictors such as endothelin and AII [1]. By discussing these other forms of coronary heart disease, the reader will better understand the relationship between these diseases and atherosclerosis; allowing a better understanding of the importance for prevention and treatment strategies of coronary heart disease. Traditionally, it has been thought that the major cause of myocardial ischemia is the result of fixed vessel narrowing and abnormal vascular tone, caused by atherosclerosis-induced endothelial cell dysfunction [6]. This narrowing of the coronary arteries reduces the blood and oxygen flow to the myocardial tissues. It is the cessation of the myocardial blood flow due to atherosclerotic occlusions that results in the immediate physiological and metabolic changes. Unfortunately, the heart cannot increase oxygen extraction on demand, therefore any additional oxygen requirements are met by increasing the blood flow and autoregulation of the coronary vasculature [6]. This oxygen imbalance may also be an underlying cause for not only myocardial ischemia, but contractile cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias, infarction, and sometimes death [5]. However, important to note is the heart’s unique ability to adapt to these sudden changes in coronary blood flow by correspondingly decreasing the rate of cardiac contraction [1,5]. Thus, the decreased work during ischemia proportionately decreases the oxygen demand and helps conserve the underperfused myocardium [1]; this protective mechanism prevents further damage and cell death due to decreased oxygen levels. Besides physiological factors, there are also metabolic changes that occur immediately after the initial onset of ischemia. The myocardial energy metabolism shifts from aerobic (mitochondrial) metabolism to anaerobic glycolysis within a few seconds [5]; simultaneously, the energy depletion causes the myocardial contraction to diminish, eventually ceasing altogether. Consequently, due to the inhibited mitochondrial metabolism, there is an increase in adenosine concentrations; which causes the adenosine to bind to the smooth muscle receptors, decreasing calcium entry into the cells, thus causing relaxation due to vasodilation [7,8]. Overall, the inability to meet the myocardial oxygen demand often results in severe, vice-like chest pain, or more commonly known as angina pectoris. Angina pectoris often is an associated symptom of myocardial ischemia and is the common medical term used to describe chest pain or discomfort due to coronary heart disease without myocardial necrosis. Interestingly, angina can also occur in people with valvular disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension). Currently there are three major variations of angina pectoris. The first is known as stable angina, or more commonly, chronic stable angina. This form of angina is characterized by a fixed, obstructive atheromous plaque in one or more coronary arteries [1,7,9]. Patients who suffer from chronic stable angina usually have episodes of discomfort that are usually predictable. The discomfort is experienced shortly after over exertion and/or mental or emotional stress; these symptoms are usually relieved by rest, nitroglycerin, or a combination of both. Again, the major contributing factor in stable angina is due to the coronary vasoconstrict ion caused by atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction [7]. A second form of angina is known as unstable angina. Unstable angina is characterized by unexpected chest pain which usually occurs at rest without any type of physical exertion. This chest pain is due to coronary artery stenosis caused by atherosclerotic plaque or the narrowing of the vessels obstructed by blood clots. Also other key factors in unstable angina include inflammation and infection [7,9]. The last form of angina is the variant angina, or more commonly known as Prinzmetal’s Angina [7]. This form of angina is manifested by episodes of focal coronary artery spasm in the absence of atherosclerotic lesions [7,9]. The coronary vasospasm alone reduces coronary oxygen supply and is thought to be caused in response to abnormal endothelial dependent vasodilators (Acetylcholine – ACh, and serotonin) [1,7]. These coronary spasms are often manifested by the coronary atheroma which damages the vascular endothelium, causing a decreased production of vasodilators (NO and prostaglandin – PGI2) and an increase in vasoconstrictive factors such as endothelin and AII [1]. Often when someone is diagnosed with either form of angina, they are usually monitored closely, as they are at an increased risk of a heart attack (myocardial infarction), cardiac arrest, or sudden cardiac death. A myocardial infarction (heart attack) is the resultant complication when the blood supply to part of the heart is interrupted. This ischemic oxygen shortage causes damage and sometimes death to the heart tissues. Important associated risk factors include: atherosclerosis, previous heart attack or stroke, smoking, high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels, diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure [10]. Often referred to as an acute myocardial infarction, it is part of the acute coronary syndromes which includes ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and unstable angina [1,7,10]. As with angina, the pain experienced may result from the release of mediators such as adenosine and lactate from the ischemic myocardial cells onto the local nerve endings [7]. This ischemic persistence triggers a process called the ischemic cascade [5], which usually results in tissue death due to necrosis. Certain factors such as psychological stressors and physical exertion have been identified as major triggering factors involved with acute myocardial infarctions. Often these acute myocardial infarctions are brought on by the rupturing of atherosclerotic plaques, which then promote thrombus (blood clot) formation causing further occlusion of the arteries. This atherosclerotic blockage thus initiates myocardial necrosis, which in turn activates systemic responses to inflammation causing the release of cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFÃŽ ±) [7,10]. Damaged caused by myocardial necrosis includes: i) loss of critical amount of ATP, ii) membrane damag e induced metabolically or mechanically, iii) formation of free radicals, iv) calcium overload, and v) sodium pump inhibition [1]. Apart from damaging the myocardial tissue, an acute myocardial infarction can cause varying pathophysiological changes in other organ systems. Some of these changes include: decreased pulmonary function – gas exchange, ventilation, and distribution of perfusion, decreased vital capacity; reduction in hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen, causes hyperglycemia and impaired glucose function, increases the plasma and urinary catecholamine levels (thus enhancing platelet aggregation), and also has been found to increase blood viscosity [5]. From the above evidence, we can see that coronary heart disease should not be looked at light heartedly. It is due to their similarity that the different coronary heart diseases can be diagnosed using a given set of molecular markers and other diagnostic tools. Serum cardiac markers have become widely used when it comes to diagnosing the extent and type of coronary heart disease a patient is symptomatic of. Also, these tests have allowed physicians to diagnose an additional one third of patients that do not exhibit all criteria of a given disease [5], thus preventing more premature deaths. The most common of these cardiac markers are myocardial bound creatine kinase (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin l and t (cTnl and cTnT). These markers are often found within a blood sample as levels start to rise between 3-8 hours and 3-4 hours respectively [7]. More recently, new ‘risk factor’ biomarkers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), myeloperoxidase (MPO) [11, 12], and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 [12] are being studied more in depth as alternative cardiac markers. Although cardiac biomarkers are heavily used, the role of noninvasive technologies also plays a major role in diagnosing coronary heart disease. These noninvasive metho ds include electrocardiography, exercise stress testing, echocardiography, cardiovascular MRI, and CT imaging of the heart [5]. Some invasive, intravascular techniques include ultrasound, thermography, near infrared spectroscopy, cardiac catheterization, and cardiac angiography [12]. As coronary heart disease is the leading cause of hospitalization and death among today’s population, primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be considered with the utmost importance. Primary prevention generally means the effort set forth to modify risk factors and prevent their development delaying or preventing new onset coronary heart disease [13]. As for secondary prevention, this often refers to the therapy involved to reduce recurrent coronary heart disease events; thus secondary preventions are essentially treatment strategies. The most common and less intensive of these treatment strategies are that of the pharmaceutical therapies. Often, these drug regimes range from the daily aspirin intake to angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), to ÃŽ ²-blockers and nitrates [12]. These drug therapies often lower the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. Unfortunately daily drug regimes do not work for everyone. Some people have their coronary heart dise ase surgically corrected either by angioplasty (insertion of stent to keep the blocked vessel open) or by means of a more complex surgery consisting of a single to multiple coronary artery bypass. With everything considered, drug therapies and surgical correction are only a means of correcting the problem; patients are also encouraged to increase physical activity and change their daily dietary habits in becoming more successful in reducing risk of development or progression of coronary artery disease. These different forms of coronary heart disease are very closely related to one another, more importantly, closely related to atherosclerosis. As discussed previously, coronary heart diseases are characterized by the narrowing or stenosis of the coronary vessels, usually caused by the atherosclerotic plaque formation due to endothelial cell dysfunction. As a result, atherosclerosis is the underlying mechanism for ischemic heart disease, angina pectoris (stable, unstable, and variant), myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death [12]. Therefore it is important to understand the cellular pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which will lead to a better understanding resulting in better prevention and treatment strategies for all forms of atheroma induced coronary heart disease. Introduction to Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis, the primary etiology of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by intimal plaque that forms as a time-dependent response to arterial injury [14]. Atherosclerosis is a disease affecting the arterial blood vessels, which is commonly known as â€Å"hardening of the arteries.† This form of coronary heart disease is the principle source of both cerebral and myocardial infarction, gangrene of the extremities, and loss of function of both organs and tissues [15]; this disease is ultimately responsible for a majority of deaths in North America, Europe, and Japan [16]. The method of atherogenesis is not fully understood, however there are a number of current models that suggest that stressors corrupt the vascular integrity allowing the abnormal accumulation of lipids, cells and extracellular matrix within the arterial wall [7]. Due to its very slow progression, it is not surprising that atherosclerosis goes undetected and remains asymptomatic until the atheroma obstr ucts the blood flow within the artery [14,16]; hence atherosclerosis is often referred to as the â€Å"silent killer†. Often, the atherosclerotic plaque can be divided into three distinct components. The first being the atheroma, which is the nodular accumulation of the soft, flaky, and yellow material of the plaques, usually composed of macrophages closest to the lumen of the artery. The second component is the underlying areas of cholesterol crystals, and the third is the calcification at the outer base of the older/more advanced lesions [17]. Collectively, these components constitute the basis of the atherosclerotic plaques. These atherosclerotic plaques are responsible for the arterial narrowing (stenosis) or they may rupture and provoke thrombosis [7, 14, 15]; either way the atherosclerotic plaque causes an insufficient blood supply to the heart and other organs. As discussed previously, the atherosclerotic plaques lead to other major complications such as ischemia, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, and causes impaired blood flow to the kidneys and lower extremities. Interestingly, arteries without many branches (internal mammary or radial arteries) tend not to develop atherosclerosis [5]. One of the most evidence-based hypotheses regarding atherogenesis is that of the response-to-injury hypothesis. This hypothesis suggests that the atherosclerotic lesions represent a specialized form of a protective, inflammatory, fibroproliferative response to various forms of insult to the arterial wall [15]. This seems to be a reoccurring theme, as now atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation between modified lipoproteins, monocyte derived macrophages, T cells, and normal cellular elements of the arterial wall [16, 18]. As with other diseases, there are a number of physiological factors that increases one’s risk for developing atherosclerosis. These factors include: age, sex, diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, tobacco smoking, estrogen status, physical inactivity, metabolic syndrome, and dyslipidemia [7, 19]. The remainder of this paper will shift its focus to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis including the ideas of endothelial dysfunction, lipoprotein entry and modification, recruitment of leukocytes, recruitment of smooth muscle; as well as other contributing factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. Also, the cellular complications of atherosclerosis will be discussed. Endothelial Dysfunction – Primary Initiation of Atherosclerosis: Healthy arteries are often responsive to various stimuli, including the shear stress of blood flow and various neurogenic signals. These endothelial cells secrete substances that modulate contraction and dilation of the smooth muscle cells of the underlying medial layer [7]. These healthy endothelial cells are also responsible for the inhibition of migration of smooth muscle cells to the intimal layer [20] and they also play an important role in immune responses. Normal functional characteristics of healthy endothelium includes: i) ability to act as a permeable barrier between the intravascular and tissue space, ii) ability to modify and transport lipoproteins into the vessel wall, iii) acts as a non-thrombogenic and non-leukocyte adherent surface, iv) acting as a source of vasoactive molecules, v) act as a source of growth regulatory molecules, and vi) a source of connective tissue matrix molecules [14, 15]. Overall, in a normal, healthy state, the endothelial layer provides a prote ctive, non-thrombogenic surface with homeostatic vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties [7]. It is widely known that the endothelium is responsible for the synthesis and release of several vasodilators such as: NO, endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs), endothelial derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), and prostacyclin (PGI2) [7, 20]. These vasodilators utilize a G-coupled signaling pathway, where NO diffuses from the endothelium to the vascular smooth muscle where it activates guanylyl cyclase (G-cyclase) [7]. The G-cyclase in turn forms cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) from cGTP; an increase in cGMP results in smooth muscle relaxation which subsequently involves a reduction of cytosolic Ca2+. Aside from these anti-thrombic substances, the endothelium also produces prothrombic molecules including endothelin-1 and other endothelium derived contracting factors (EDFCs) [20]. Importantly, the endothelium derived NO not only modulates the tone of the underlying vascular smooth muscle, but is also responsible for the inhibition of several proatherogenic processes. These processes include smooth muscle proliferation and recruitment, platelet aggregation, oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDLs), monocyte and leukocyte recruitment, platelet adhesion, and the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines [20]. Therefore, relating back to the response-to-injury hypothesis, loss of these endothelial functions promotes endothelial dysfunction, thus acting as the primary event in atherogenesis. Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initiating event which leads to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. For this reason endothelial dysfunction has been shown to be of prognostic significance in predicting such vascular events as heart attacks or strokes [21]. It has been established that endothelial cell dysfunction is characterized by alterations in vascular permeability and inadequate production of NO [4, 22, 23]; thus predisposing the endothelium to the development of atheromas. Interestingly, in response to initial atheroma formation, the arteries often dilate, causing outward remodeling of the vessel for this accommodation [4]; however if this remodeling is insufficient, the blood flow is impaired, thus causing ischemia [4]. Several physical and chemical factors are responsible for affecting normal endothelial function. Some common factors discussed previously include diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, age, diet, and physical inactivity. However, more importantly are the physiological factors: i) impairment of the permeable barrier, ii) release of inflammatory cytokines, iii) increase transcription of cell-surface adhesion molecules, iv) altered release of vasoactive substances (PGI2 and NO), and v) interference with normal anti-thrombotic properties [7]. Commonly, endothelial dysfunction is characterized by the reduction of vasodilators NO and PGI2, and the increase of various endothelial derived contracting factors [23, 24]. This impairment may also predispose the vessels to vasospasm [22]. This decrease in NO bioavailability is thought to cause a decreased level of expression of endothelial cell NO synthetase (eNOS) [21], thus reducing the likelihood of vasodilation from occurring. Apart from its vasodilatory role, NO is also responsible for resisting inflammatory activation of endothelial functions such as expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 [5]. NO has also appeared to exert anti-inflammatory action at the level of gene expression by interfering with nuclear factor kappa B (NFÃŽ ºB), which is important in regulating numerous genes involved in inflammatory responses [5]; these inflammatory responses will be discussed later on. The other common vasodilator, PGI2 is also reduced during endothelial dysfunction. PGI2 is a major product of vascular cyclooxygenase (COX) and is considered a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation [20]. Like NO, PGI2 is an endothelial derived product which is often produced in response to shear stress (commonly caused by blood flow) and hypoxia [20]. By understanding the other roles NO and PGI2 play within the endothelium, we can see that a decrease in one or the other ultimately leads to dysfunction and disruption of the endothelium. As a result of vasodilator reduction, the endothelium often synthesizes and releases EDCFs causing endothelial constriction. The major constrictors include superoxide anions (which act by scavenging NO – thus further reducing NO levels), thromboxane A2, endothelin-1, AII, and ÃŽ ±-adrenergic factors [20]. Unlike the vasodilators, the vasoconstrictors utilize two signaling pathways. The ÃŽ ± 1-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways utilize the same G-coupled pathway as the vasodilators (discussed previously) however instead of cGMP; it ut ilizes cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) [1]. The other constrictors including thromboxane A2, endothelin-1 and AII utilize the cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathway; where the activated kinase acts as a trigger for various physiological effects, including increased contractile activity on the arterioles [1]. The overall progression of atherosclerotic plaque formation is best illustrated in Figure 1, which showcases multiple events that are simultaneously triggered by endothelial dysfunction. Apart from the imbalance of vasoactivators, endothelial dysfunction is responsible for initiating two other separate pathways that also participate in the progression of plaque formation and growth. Lipoprotein entry is the next initial stage in atherogenesis. This is then followed by the modification and entry of lipoproteins, the recruitment of leukocytes, and the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. Overall this â€Å"evolutionary† process best represents the formation of atherosclerotic plaques within the vessels. Lipoprotein Entry and Modification: Lipid accumulation is another major manifestation of the vascular response to injury, and is accelerated by the entry and modification of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are composed of both lipids and proteins, and help transport water-insoluble fats throughout the bloodstream [7, 25]. The lipid core is surrounded by hydrophilic phospholipids, free cholesterol and apoliporoteins; where the protein portion has a charged group, aimed outwards to attack water molecules, thus making the lipoproteins soluble in the plasma of the blood [26, 27]. In total, there are five major classes of lipoproteins: the chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate low density lipoproteins (ILDLs), low density lipoproteins (LDLs), and the high density lipoproteins (HDLs). The chylomicrons provide the primary means of transport of dietary lipids, while the VLDLs, ILDLs, LDLs, and HDLs function to transport endogenous lipids [16, 25]. Of the lipoproteins, the LDLs are of most interest. Inter estingly high LDL levels often correlate closely with atherosclerosis development, whereas high HDL levels protect against atherosclerosis; the HDL protection is thought to be related to its ability to transport lipids away from the peripheral tissues back to the liver for disposal [7]. A key component to the accumulation of lipids is due to the endothelial dysfunction, which causes a loss of selective permeability and barrier function. This ineffective permeability allows for the entry of LDLs into the intima lining of the vessels [7, 16]. The highly elevated circulating levels of LDLs are colloquially referred to as having hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, or dyslipidemia [7, 25-27]. In either case, once the LDL has entered the intima of the vessel, the LDL starts accumulating in the subendothelial space by binding to components of the extracellular matrix, the proteoglycans; lipolytic and lysosomal enzymes also play a role in lipid accumulation [27]. Importantly, statins lower circulating cholesterol levels by indirectly inhibiting HMG CoA-reductase (rate limiting enzyme required for endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis [16]. This results in the decrease of intracellular cholesterol levels, which leads to the activation of SREBP, upregulation of LDL receptors, and the clearance from plasma degradation of LDL; thus reducing circulating LDL levels [16]. When the lipid accumulation increases the residence time that the LDL occupies within the vessel wall, it allows more time for lipoprotein modification [7]; which appears to play a key role in the continued progression of the atherosclerotic plaque. Often, endothelial cell dysfunction leads to the altered expression of lipoprotein receptors used to internalize and modify various lipoproteins [14]. These changes usually occur via oxidative modifications. The oxidative modification hypothesis (figure 2) focuses on the concept that LDLs in their native state are often not atherogenic [27]. It is believed, however, that LDLs are modified chemically by the endothelial cells [26] and are readily internalized by macrophages (formation of the foam cell) via the ‘scavenger-receptor’ pathway [27]. Essentially the â€Å"trapped† LDL within the subendothelial space is oxidized by the resident vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and macrophages. As a result t